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GIFT OF 
William R, Daingerfielc 




THE STANDARD SERIES 

ESPERANTO AT A 
GLANCE 

The International Language 
History, Grammar, and Vocabulary 

BY 

EDMOND PRIVAT 



* * To each nation its national language^ and 
to humanity its international language^ ^ 




New York CtycAGO Toronto 

Fleming H. Revell Company 

LoNHON AND Edinburgh 



ESPERANTO 

TRANSLATIONS 



FICTION, ROMANCE, 

SONGS, COMEDY. DRAMA 

FAIRY TALES. CLASSICS. 

POETRY. ETC. 

COMMERCIAL LETTERS, SINTAX 

SHORTHAND. ETC. 

Anderson's Feiry Tales in Esperanto, . . . Net .45 

Imenlago. German Novel of the Storm, tr. 

by Bader, Net .25 

La Taraono. Polish romance, tr. by Kabe, Net . 60 

Angla Lingvo sen Profesoro. Comedy from 

Bernard, tr. by Moch, ........ Net .30 

Onklo Kiel. Nevo. Comedy from Schiller, 

tr. by Stewart, • . ... Net .25 

Pilgrim's Progress, by John Bunyan. Esper- 
anto translation, Rhodes, • Net .60 

Fundamental Grammar and Dictionary in 

Five Languages. Dr. Zamenhof, . . Net .90 

Universala Vortaro. Zamenhof, Net .30 

Hamlet — Shakespeare. Zamenhof, Net .60 

La Revizoro. Drama. Zamenhof, .... Net .45 

The Book of Ecclesiastes (from Old Testa- 
ment Scriptures), tr. by Zamenhof, . . Net .25 

Flemish Stories. Net .45 

Shorthand Textbook, , . Net .30 

Grimm's Fairy Tales. Kabe, ....... Net .60 

Intemacia Krestomatto (i^nthology). Kabe, Net 40 

La Vojo. Song in Esperanto, Net .15 



ESPERANTO AT A 
GLANCE 

The International Language 
History, Grammar, and Vocabulary 



BY 

EDMOND PRIVAT 



** To each nation its national language^ and 
to humanity its international language'''' 




New York Chicago Toronto 

Fleming H. Revell Company 

London and Edinburgh 



Copyright,. 1908, 
By EDMOND PRIVAT 



O \ ^ 






Qi 



THE QUINN & BODEN CO. PRESS 
BAHWAY, N. J. 



LA HIMNO "ESPERO'' 

En la mondon venis nova sento, 
Tra la mondo iras forta voko; 
Per flugiloj de facila vento 
Nun de loko flugu gi al loko. 

Ne al glavo sangon soifanta 
Oci la homan tiras familion: 
Al la mond' eterne militanta 
Gi promesas sanktan harmonion. 

Sub la sankta signo de V espero 
Kolektigas pacaj batalantoj, 
Kaj rapide kreskas la afero 
Per laboro de la esperanto j. 

Forte star as muroj de mil j arc j 
Inter la popoloj dividitaj ; 
Sed dissaltos la obstinaj baroj 
Per la sankta amo disbatitaj. 

Sur neutrala lingva fundamento, 
Komprenante unu la alian. 
La popoloj faros en konsento 
Unu grandan rondon familian. 

Nia diligenta kolegaro 
En laboro paca ne laeigos, 
Otis la bela songo de 1' homaro 
Por eterna ben' efektivigos. 

D^- L. L. Zamenhof. 



M51389 









/t^'^lJunlntemahonal Language Required?. -' ''■ • ' ^ ' 

Such a question, said Unuel, will seejn to our ' : '^ :•, | .' /_ 
grandsons as stupid as would now weein co UjS a 
question like this : Is a postal service required ? 

Any one who has any relations with foreign 
countries and peoples knows how tedious is the 
diversity of languages in the world, with all the dis- 
advantages and losses of time or money it causes. 
Nobody now thinks of destroying the national 
languages and obliging all men on earth to 
speak one same universal language; but many 
think that nobody will complain when one day, in 
the schools of all countries, the children will learn, 
besides their native tongue, a practical and easy 
international language which will give them ac- 
cess to the whole world. 

That is what many men have been working for 
during recent centuries. Some people thought 
that it would be possible some day to convoke a 
kind of Hague Conference, which would choose as 
officially international one of the existing lan- 
guages — as, for instance, English, French, or Ger- 
man. But they soon understood that the different 
7 



8 ESPEEANTO AT A GLANCE 

nations never could agree to give to one of them 
such an advantage, which would be an enormous in- 
justice to all the others. Besides, our languages are 
always difficult for foreign people to learn and are 
full of irregularities, exceptions, and complicated 
idioms, ."w^hich must not, or should not, exist in an 
ittet-naticitial language. 

Why -ifvi' Use Greek or Latin 9 

Both these languages are taught in the colleges 
of all countries, and were, the latter twenty 
centuries ago and the former five centuries 
ago, the international languages of the Old 
World. Many scholars thought of reviving them 
for this use, but that always was a vain dream. 
They are so difficult that only a very few specialists 
Bucceed in knowing them thoroughly after years 
and years of study; and it is quite impossible to 
express by them half of our modern ideas, for 
they are languages of olden times. How could 
you speak of "electro-mechanical" in Latin? One 
ought to renovate the whole vocabulary and sim- 
plify the whole grammar to make them fit for use. 
Then, instead of spoiling the native tongue of 
Sophocles or Horace, why not make another lan- 
guage especially prepared for its modern use, 
"which could be made much more simple, perfect, 
rich, and flexible than any existing language" 
(Max Muller) ? 



ESPEEANTO AT A GLANCE 9 

'Artificial Languages. 

Since Leibnitz many philosophers have tried to 
compose systems of artificial world-languages, but 
these were always theoretical and impractical pro- 
jects. Some thirty years ago the "Volapiik" of 
Abbe Schleyer had a momentary success in the 
whole world, and gave the first proof of the possi- 
bility of such a language; but the system was too 
difficult, too artificial, and did not pay enough at- 
tention to the existing languages and their modern 
evolution. Volapuk had no internal life, and 
after some years it died, while its adepts were 
fighting with each other about changing the lan- 
guage or were in great numbers taking up the new 
system known as Esperanto. 

Zamenhofs Work. 

Esperanto was created by Dr. L. L. Zamenhof, 
a Polish oculist, who was born at Bielostok, Eussia, 
in 1859. Polish, Eussian, German, and Yiddish 
were spoken together in his native city. The strug- 
gles, often sanguinary, among these diverse- 
tongued peoples, led him to devote his entire spare 
time to the creation of a neutral language, which 
would foster peaceful relations between the differ- 
ent nations. 

He began the work when he was a schoolboy and 
published his first grammar, when he was 28 years 
old, under the name of ^'Doktoro Esperanto" (The 



10 ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE . 

Hoping Doctor). That was in l^^ and since 
then the language has made a slow but sure progress 
throughout the world during a period of fifteen 
years; while its best adepts gave the language its 
basis and the first masterpieces of a very solid and 
living literature. 

In 1902, the public began to understand what 
the progress of Esperanto was teaching them, and 
then started the general movement, which is now 
everywhere prevalent, to introduce Esperanto into 
the public schools and into commerce and the 
sciences. 

The Structure of Esperanto. 

Dr. Zamenhof did not really make an arti- 
ficial language, but a sort of synthesis of our 
principal modern languages. He chose for the 
vocabulary of his language the most international 
roots. 

Such words as telefono, telegrafo, teatro, arto^ 
muziko, onMo, suTccesi, miraklo, etc., which form 
the majority in Esperanto, belong to almost all our 
modern languages, and the other words — as, for 
instance, trinki, varma, hluxi, tempo, glaso, granda, 
tablo, inko, tago, lerni, etc. — always belong to two 
or three of our great languages. Such a basis 
makes Esperanto a Latin-Germanic language, 
which English is also. 

To aid in more easily acquiring the vocabulary, 



ESPEKANTO AT A GLANCE 11 

Dr. Zamenhof established regularly what exists 
irregularly in our languages — a system of pre- 
fixes and suffixes by which many words are formed 
from the same root. For instance, mal- denotes 
the contrary: varma, warm, malvarma, cold; kon- 
tenta, pleased, malkontenta, displeased; fermi, to 
shut, malfermi, to open, etc. -isto denotes the 
profession or occupation: arto, artisto; muzilco, 
muziJcisto; pordo, door, pordisto, doorkeeper, etc. 
-INO denotes the female: onJclo, uncle, onklino, 
aunt; aktoro, actor, aktorino, actress; nevo, 
nephew, nevino, niece, etc. -ema denotes the pro- 
pensity or disposition: kredi, to believe, kredema, 
credulous; paroli, to talk, parolema, talkative; 
mokiy to mock, mokema, mocking, etc. As for the 
grammar. Dr. Zamenhof made it as simple as pos- 
sible, clear, logical, without any of the exceptions 
or irregular verbs which make our languages so 
complicated. Substantives always end in o, ad- 
jectives in A, adverbs in e, present tense in as, 
past in IS, future in os, and so forth. Parolo, 
speech; parola, oral; parole, orally; mi parolas, 
I speak; vi parolis, you spoke; Hi parolos, they will 
speak. 

The language is absolutely phonetic, and each 
word is written as it is pronounced. The sounds 
of the different letters are almost the same as in 
Latin or Italian. Esperanto spoken sounds very 
harmonious and is easily pronounced by all the dif- 



12 ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 

ferent nationalities. In the universal Esperanto 
Congresses, where every year about two thousand 
people from more than thirty different countries 
all over the world meet, it is found very difficult 
to recognize the different nationalities, so imper- 
ceptible are the slight differences of pronuncia- 
tion. 

The Progress of Esperanto. 

For twenty-one years Esperanto has been used 
by many thousands throughout various countries 
for their international relations; and one of the 
principal causes of its actual, rapid success is the 
fact that it is not a new project in which people do 
not know whether to have faith or not, but a 
tried language that has been used for a long 
time, that has its internal life, its own litera- 
ture, and which one is obliged to consider as an 
evident reality and not as a beautiful dream. Es- 
peranto is already used by many commercial firms 
in international intercourse and exploiting and by 
many scientists who seek to understand and corre- 
spond with each other. Some commercial maga- 
zines are published in Esperanto, as well as a 
medical and a scientific review, The Internacia 
Scienca Eevuo, edited in Geneva by a group of dis- 
tinguished professors. World-famous men such as 
Professor William James, Oswald, General Sebert, 
Boirac, Ramsay, J. J. Thomson, Oscar Browning, 



ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 13 

Ernest Naville, and others are members of the 
"Internacia Seienca Asocio." 

Many world-wide organizations, as the Peace 
Societies and Congresses, religious associations, 
Freemasons, Socialists, specialists in different 
branches, are employing Esperanto and publishing 
in it magazines and new books of international in- 
terest. Esperanto is officially taught in many pub- 
lic schools in France, England, Germany, Rus- 
sia, and other countries. The London Chamber 
of Commerce gives diplomas in it. Nine hundred 
and fifty societies exist in the world to spread the 
language, and forty magazines are published for 
the same purpose. The movement is very strong 
in Europe and Japan, but is only beginning in 
America. However, there have been founded in 
the United States two magazines, and eighty-five 
societies within two years. 

The Esperanto Congresses. 

Every summer, Esperantist delegates from so- 
cieties of all countries, about two thousand people, 
meet in a Universal Congress, and during one week 
have discussions, lectures, meetings of all sorts, con- 
certs, feasts, etc. — all in the one same harmo- 
nious language, in which they perfectly understand 
one another. Very often they speak as fluently as 
in their own languages, although many of them 
are persons of limited education. Comedies 



14 ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 

are acted there by actors from twelve or more 
different countries, and nothing could be a better 
V proof of the practicability of Esperanto. 

Such international gatherings prove something 
more. In seeing these people of all races, of all 
positions, and all opinions, living together for one 
week as real brothers, although they never knew 
each other before, many men become enthusiastic 
for Esperanto and feel that its founder is begin- 
ning to attain his original ambition: to bring the 
nations together jby a better understanding. 

The Actual Use of Esperanto. 

Everybody understands that once Esperanto is 
taught officially everywhere, it will be very con- 
venient, indeed- and a great many people, I am 
sure, are quite determined to learn it "when every- 
body else knows it." If every one said the same 
for each step of progress, we would be still in a 
savage state. 

However, it is important to show the immediate 
need of learning Esperanto. First of all, it gives to 
every one the possibility of corresponding with 
people of foreign countries on any business or spe- 
cial subject. Having found in Esperanto maga- 
zines addresses of young people in other countries, 
a great many boys and girls have started a very 
instructive correspondence, made friends every- 
where, and often thereby found situations later. 



ESPEEANTO AT A GLANCE 15 

One may now travel easily by means of Es- 
peranto. In each city where the Esperanto or- 
ganizations are strong enough, there is an Es- 
peranto Consul who gives to foreign Esperantists 
free information about his city, and finds persons 
who are very glad to show them the curiosities 
of the town, and so get in this way practice in 
speaking Esperanto. The Esperanto Central 
Office in Paris publishes every year the universal 
address-book of Esperanto Consuls. A great many 
persons have already made long tours, knowing no 
other language than their own and Esperanto. 
They never could have done it so easily without 
Esperanto, even if they had known French and 
German. What is the use of French or German 
when travelling in Hungary or Italy ? 

Why Should One Learn Esperanto? 

The great Russian writer Tolstoi said fifteen 
years ago : "The sacrifices that any civilized man 
would make in learning Esperanto are so slight 
and the results so immense, that no one should re- 
fuse to make the attempt." And Tolstoi also said 
that after two hours of study he was able to read 
Esperanto with ease. The president of the Lin- 
guistic Society in Paris said that Esperanto, hav- 
ing no irregularities in the verbs, must be five 
times easier to learn than any other language. 

When one comes to think of what a splendid 



I 

fl 

16 ESPERAN<FO AT A GLANCE 

thing it will be for humanity to have an inter- 
national language, we ought to consider it a duty 
to learn Esperanto, in order to give a good ex- 
ample to others and to encourage governments 
in introducing it into the schools. 

Esperanto is already very strong in the world, 
and has shown itself to be an excellent means of 
advancing the Peace Cause. It will soon be offi- 
cially established, if it continues to grow as fast 
as it is now growing. In that day it will not be 
a merit to learn it, because every one will do so; 
but one will be either proud to have helped it be- 
fore, or ashamed not to have done so. 

It behooves every one to choose. 



ii 



THE ELEMENTS OF THE ESPERANTO 
LANG¥AGE 









The Alphabet 






a 


b 


c 


cdefgghh 


i 3 


J 


k 


1 


m 


noprsstu 


U V 


z 



Vowels are pronounced as follows, and each 
counts for one syllable. They have no combina- 
tion with each other. 

a = a in "star'' o = o in "for" 

e =: e in "there" u =: u in "rule" 

i = i in "clique" Do not drag the vowels. 

Consonants are pronounced as in English, ex- 
cept the following: 

c = ts in "Tsar" j =^ s in "pleasure" 

c = ch in "church" s = s in "see" 

^ = g in "good" s = sh in "she" 

^ r= g in "gem" /i = kh 

; = y in 'Tjoy" or "yes" u =z w 

Every letter keeps always the same sound. 
Every word is written as it is pronounced. The 
accent always falls on the last syllable but one: 
JcAnti, EsperAnto, gard^no, Ankau, malbonaj. 
17 



GRAMMAR 

There are no exceptions to any rule. 

Article. — There is no indefinite article in Es- 
peranto. Glaso means a glass. 

There is only one form of the definite article : la 
used as the English the for singular and plural. 

Substantives always end in o : tdblo, table; la 
bono, the good. 

Adjectives always end in a: bona, good; bela, 
beautiful. La granda kato, the large cat. 

The Plural is formed for adjectives and sub- 
stantives by the adding of a ; (pronounced as 
the English y) : La belaj katoj, the beautiful cats. 
The adjective always agrees with its noun: La 
tabloj estas bonaj, the tables are good. 

Verbs in the infinitive end in i: paroli, to speak; 
trinki, to drink; moki, to mock. 

The Present tense ends in as: mi parolas, I 
speak. 

The Past tense ends misivi mokis, you mocked, 
you have mocked. 

18 



ESPEEANTO AT A GLANCE 19 

The Future tense ends in os : li parolos, he will 
or shall speak. 

The Conditional ends in us: ni moJcus, we 
would (or should) mock. 

Purpose mode ends in u: parolu! speak! ni 
moJcuI let us mock ! mi deziras he li parolu, I wish 
that he may speak ; he li ne vundu, that he may not 
wound. 

Active Participle endings : 

Present in anta: parolanta, speaking. 
Past in inta : parolinta, having spoken. 
Future in onta : parolonta, about to speak. 

Passive Participle endings: 

Present in ata: mohata, being mocked. 
Past in ita : mohita, having been mocked. 
Future in ota : mohota, about to be mocked. 
They are also changed into substantives, ad- 
jectives, or adverbs: la mohanto, the mocker; la 
parolanto, the speaker; trinhante, by drinking; 
vunditOy a wounded man. 

Compound Tenses may be formed by the help 
of the only auxiliary in Esperanto : esti, to be. 

Mi estis parolanta, I was speaking. 

Vi estis mohinta, you had mocked ( = you were 
having mocked). 

Ni estos vundataj, we will be wounded. . j 



^ 



20 ESPEEANTO AT A GLANCE 

The Pronouns are : 

mi, I. gi, it. 

v% you. ni, we. 

liy he. vi, you. 

si, she. il% they. 

a, seldom used, means thou; oni means one. 

Si is the reflexive pronoun for the third person : 
it means himself, herself, itself, or themselves. 
Li parolas al si, he speaks to himself. Hi estis vun- 
ditaj de si, they were wounded by themselves. 

Possessive adjectives are formed by adding the 
ending a: mia, my; via, your; lia, his; sia, her; 
gia, its; nia, our; via, your; ilia, their. Sia, his 
own, her own, its own, their own, is used before a 
complement belonging to the subject of the sen- 
tenbe. Mia patro promenas kun sia amiJco haj lia 
filo, my father walks with his own friend and his 
(the friend's) son. 

Direct objects and adjectives qualifying them 
take n at the end in order to permit a free and 
variable construction of any sentence. 

Mi trinhas bonan hieron, I drink good beer; 
Bonan hieron mi trinhas; Bier on mi trinkas honan, 
are all correct ways to build the same sentence. Ni 
vidis la largajn tahlojn, we saw the wide tables. 
Li mokas min, he mocks me. 

This ending n may be used instead of a preposi- 



— •*——' * 



ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 21 

tion in cases where the meaning is sufficiently clear, 

especially when there is the idea of direction or 

time. Instead of saying Mi iras al Parizo, I go 

to Paris, one says Mi iras ParizoN. Instead of Mi 

iras AL en la cambro, I go into the chamber, one 

says Mi iras en la camhroN. Instead of Iru al suh 

la tahlo! go under the table, one says Iru suh 

la tabloNl Instead of Al kie vi iras? where do 

you go ? one says Kie^ vi iras ? Instead of Restu 

DUM tri tagoji^I stay during three days, one says LtL^Urf 

Restu tri tagoJN ! etc. ^ / 

In these examples the final n was used instead 
of al, to; dum, during, etc. 

The Comparative degree is formed by pli. .ol, 
more. .than. 

Pli bona ol mi, better than I. 

Pli rapide ol Jcato, faster than a cat. 

Malpli granda ol gi, less big than it. 

The Superlative degree is formed by plej . . el, 
most. .of. 

La plej bona el ni, the best of us. 
La plej larga tablo, the widest table. 
La malplej larga, the least wide. 

Equality is expressed by tieL.Tciel, as.. as. 
Tiel bona Jciel li, as good as he. 



22 ESPEEANTO AT A GLANCE 

Cardinal numbers are invariable : 

1, unu. 5, levin. 9, nau. 

2, du. 6, ses. 10, deJc. 

3, tri. 7, sep. 100, cent 

4, hvar. 8, olc. 1000, mil. 
Million is milion. The tens and hundreds are 

formed by simple junction of the numerals: 20, 
dudek; 30, trideh; 40, hvardek; 90, naudek; 500, 
hvincent; 11, dek-unu; 12, dek-du; 17, dek-sep; 
64, sesdeh-hvar; 78, sepdek-ok; 452, kvarcent 
hvindek-du; 4927, kvarmil naucent dudek-sep. 

Ordinals are formed by adding a to the car- 
dinals; 3d, ^na; 56th, kvindek-sesa; 21st, dudek- 
unua. 

Fractionals are formed by adding ono : a half, 
duono; a quarter, kvarono; nine-tenths, riait 
dekonoj. 

Multiples are formed by adding ohla: double, 
duohla; decuple, dekohla. 

Collectives are formed by adding ope : dekope, 
by tens ; centope, by hundreds. 

Nouns, adjectives, and adverbs may be formed 
from all these, as, for instance: dekduo, dozen; 
unue, firstly ; due, secondly ; duone, by halves, etc. 



Prepositions have in Esperanto precise values, 
and one must be careful to translate an English 



ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 



23 



preposition by its logical rather than by its ap- 
parent equivalent in Esperanto. 

He lives with us, li logas CE m. 

He walks with me, li promenxis KUisr mi. 

He beat me with a stick, li hatis min per has- 
iono. 

There are three prepositions to translate theV 
three ideas, logically different, contained in the 
English preposition with. 

When one has doubts as to which preposition t" • 
to use for indefinite ideas, as in: at what time? 
at 3.20 a. m. ; on Monday next, etc., one may use 
the indefinite preposition je or the final n without 



preposition: je hioma horof je 3.20 matene^^km-^ '^^ 



,„ n"^'»':^!^^S^^^id\ 



*«^*^ List of the Principal Prepositions 



Al, 

Antau, 

Apud, 

Ce, 

CirkaUy 

De.Jiifr 

Dum, 

Ekster, 

El, 

En, 

Inter, 
Kun, 
Krom, 



before. 

near. 

at, with. 

round, about.^ 

of, from, ify^ 

during. 

outside. 



Lau, 

Malgrau, 

Per, 

For, 

Post, 

Preter, 

Pri, 

Pro, 



according 
in spite of 
by, by means of. 
in order to, for. 
after, behind. ^^ 
beyond, /»nt/^Xr, 



to.J^-^^'^'f^' 



out oLi^ff^^'^'Sub, under. 



about, of. cxyfVOJiAmAJ^. 



for, on account of, A<*<x*«'A^ *J/ 



in, into, r [hi Super, 
till, untiliaA*^ 8ur, 



over, above. j- / j / 

on, u^on.<Um:^^Ut^a^£i^*<^p^iM^' 

through* X<* '♦**-*-^*^- ^ ' 

across. 



tf**~^i\jy/t^. 



/ 



between.«*-3^ Tra, 
with>^ '••^*5^' Trans, 
^.^..., except, besides, in addition to. 

Anstatau, instead, antau ol, before, and por, 
for, are the only prepositions which may be used be- 



h 



24 ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 

fore verbs. Anstatau diri, instead of telling; 
antau ol fari, before doing; por doni, in order to 
give. One observes that in Esperanto the in- 
finitive is used in such cases, and not the participle. 
The expressions without doing, without telling, 
must be translated by in not doing, in not telling : 
ne farante, ne dirante.'n^^^^^''^-**-^^^^^^^^ 
The preposition da is used for of after a word 
/ ' / ^^ of measure : multe da, much of.^^ W<ml4 </i A^x^e^^t^J 

^ , - Pbincipal Non-derived Advebbs ''' 

rS ^ F ^ Adiaii, adieu. Jam, already. 

Almenau, at least. Jus, just, just now. 

Ankorau, again, yet. Jes, yes. 

Ankau, also. Ne, no, not. 

Au, or. - Nun, now. 

Apenau, scarcely, A^i«^t£^. Nur, only. 

Baldau, soon. Preskau, almost. 

E6f even. Tuj, immediately, a a t 

For, away. Tute ne, not at all. /;,^Xr^ ai^ 

J ^ Jam. .ne, no. .more. Ne. .plu, no. .longer, ^i 
^* > ^ jam lin ne audis. She heard him no more. Mi ne 
? . atendos plu. I shall wait no longer. 

Jen . . jen, sometimes . . sometimes. Jen si plo- 
ras, jen si ridas. Sometimes she weeps, sometimes w ,yu/^ 

^ she laughs. aL0 ."*-» ^^ t'taf^ . J^'fpUi", ^ 

ki Ju pli. .des pli, the more, .the more. Ju pli;,UAJ^ ^ 

\ mi vidas lin, des pli mi admiras lin. The more I ''^jj^^ 

see him, the more I admire him. ^d^^ 



ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 



25 



List of the Pbincipal Conjunctions 



Alie, 

Ail. .a 

Car, 

Dum, 

Ec se, 

Ja, 

Kaj, 



otherwise. 

either, .or. 

because. 

while. 

even if. 

indeed. 

and. 



Do, therefore. 

Nek . . nek, neither . . nor. 
Por he, in order that. 
8e tamen, if however. 



Kvankam, although. 
8e, if. 

8ed, but. 



Sekve, 
Se nur, 
Tamen, 
Cu . . 6u, 
€u. .au, 
S^ ... -nA, 



jr. ^^^•y ""^^ ^ 



consequently. 

if only,; 

however. . .- - 

whether. .whethei7^^^'<*-«4U^ S- 

whether . . or. 




Abbreviations. 

h.t.p. {kaj tiel plu), and so forth. 
Jc.c. (kaj ceteraj), et cetera, &c. 
t.e. (tio estas), that is (to say). 



Interrogation is shown in Esperanto by the 
little word cu, which can be translated by whether. 
Putting this word before any positive sentence, 
without changing anything in its order, makes it a 
question. 

Li estas bona. He is good. 

Cu li estas bona? Is he good? 

Cu via patro lab or as? Does your father work? 

Cu is used only for single questions — that is, 
when there is no word, as what, when, where, etc., 
which already shows the interrogation. ^kxAH eLUcjnM^*.uL44^j^ 

Kio estas sur la tablo? What is on the table? 

The Eelative pronoun is kiu, who, which, that. 
It takes j in the plural, as also do iu, ciu, tiu, etc. 



^ 



26 



ESPEEANTO AT A GLAISTCE 



"^ 


















(H 




«M 
















<y 




o 
















a 


^\ 


■ill 

3 


1 


i 


•1 


1 




9) 

1 


1 


■5 


P^i 


<a 
















a 


g^ 






































-< 






a 














4 


1 II 

) i go 








<u 

a 




O 

a 


•1 


li 

o« 
a 


tj 




















h 


^ 




§ 












4) 


1 

^ 


1 o 
1 ^ 


2 


1 




1 




^ 




a 

If 


PQ 






































« • 






"0 g 
















iilf 


■1 


1! 


g 


1 

-3 




1 

«> 

>• 






f^A 


V 




^ o 












a> 


>^ 




















h-( 




















H 


•sill 

* 9 c' 




0) S 




i 




2« 

0* J- 






1 




ii 


1 


■■3 u 
o fl 


•S 


Is 
ii 


."I 


ad'> 


S * 




»4 




to as 




n " 




"g 








s 
































O 




















{z; 


>^ 




CO 

> 
o 












M 


b 








i 




S 








s 



ESPEEANTO AT A GLANCE 



27 



ties 

such a one's 
that one's 


tio 

that (thing) 


tiom{da) 

so j much 
as i many 


tiu 

that 
the former 


nenies 

nobody's 
no one's 


nenio 

nothing 


neniom 

none 
no quantity 


neniu 

nobody 
no (adjective) 


Icies 

whose 


hio 

what (thing) 


Mom (da) 

how much 

how many 

what quantity 


Mu 

who 

which 

that 

(rel. pronoun) 


cies 

each one's 
every one's 


cio 

everything 
all things 


ciom 

all of it 
the whole 


ciu 

each one 

all 

every 


ies 

any one's 
somebody's 
anybody's 


io 

something 
anything 


iom{da) 

somewhat 

some quantity 

(a little) 


iu 

some one 
any 


g 




-1-5 

PI 


1 



4 

^ 






<15 



^ 



•* 



28 ESPEEANTO AT A GLANCE 

r £u> f^ , Those men who come, tiui Jiomoj, Tciuj venas. 



UUt. a. 



zL^^ 



The word kiu is a pronoun when it is alone, 

^rf^*^ ' but it corresponds to our adjectives what or which 

when it is before a noun. Kiu parolas? Who 

speaks? Kvaj tahloj estas tie? Which tables are 

there? "^^'^^^ «-^f-vB^. w^^i» a. i..^.^ ^^^ 

The Demonstrative ^w, that, is an adjective^ 
if before a noun, and a demonstrative pronoun if t 
alone: tiu tdblo, that table; tiu ne venas, that per- 



\^ 



son does not come. Tio, that, is always a pronoun 
for things: mi deziras tion, I want that. Both ^ 
may take the little adverb ci to become more pre- J 
^^^ pise: tiu ci, this; <io ci, this thing. C*.' n*^^^^^^^^^ r , 
«<?. ^>-^ Never use tio, that (pronoun), instead of Ice, "p^ 
'^^^y^' that (conjunction), ilfi cZiVas ke cm/ Icredas tion". J* 
I say that all believe ^/la^. Kemember also that 
"that" may also be a relative pronoun; for ex- 
ample, The dog that I saw, La hundo kiun mi 






/TV 







FORMATION OF WORDS 

Grammatical endings may be used for the fol- 
lowing purposes: From the root parol': paroli, to 
speak; parolo, speech; parola, oral; parole, orally. 
From the root varrri : varma, warm; varme, 
warmly ; la varmo, the warmth. 

Compound words may be formed : 

Yaporo, steam; sipo, ship; vaporsipo, steam- 
boat. 

Tago, day; mezo, middle; tagmezo, noon. 

(The between two roots may be retained or 
omitted as euphony requires.) 

Prefixes 

ho- denotes relation hy marriage: patro, father. 
hopatro, father-in-law. frato^ brother, ho- 



frato, brother-in-law. 



to ^."^ 



dis- denotes separation (as in English) : jeti, ^^ -^"tjc r^ > 
throw, disjeti, to throw about, semi, to sow. i^jUtun. /nwt^ 
dissemi, to disseminate. nxg4otMC , 

eJc. denotes beginning and momentary action: £f^ 't^u^z 
hril% to shine, ehhrili, to flash, hanti, to 



sing, eklcanti, to start singing. .^-t u^rw 

29 



'^ 



30 ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 

ge- denotes persons of both sexes taken together: 
mastro, master, gemastroj, master and mis- 
tress, onhlo, uncle, geonhloj , uncle and aunt. 
gepatroj, parents. 

mal- denotes opposite ideas : rica, rich, malrica, 
poor, fermi, to shut, malfermi, to open. 

re- denotes return and repetition: veni, to come. 
reveni, to come back, hrili, to shine, rehrili. 






Suffixes 

'ad — denotes duration and continuation of action : 
pafo, a shot, pafado, shooting, rigardi, to 
look at. rigardadi, to view, instrui, to teach. 
instruado, teaching. 
-a} — denotes concrete ideas: mola, soft, molajo, 
soft material, amiha, friendly, amikajo, a 
kindness. 
-an — denotes an inhabitant, member, or partisan: 
Londono, London. Londonano, Londoner. 
Kristo, Christ. Kristano, a Christian. 
-ar — denotes a collection of things : vorto, a word. 
vortaro, a dictionary, arbo, a tree, arbaro, a 
• } * forest. hnvL^t^o*^*^^*-^' 

H -ebl — denotes possibility (Engl, -able -ible) : vidi, 

J to see. videbla, visible, hredi, to believe. 

"^ Icredebla, credible. 

J^ -ec — denotes abstract ideas: mola, soft, moleco. 



^■# 



-^ 



ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 



31 



i I-^ ship. 



softness, amihe, friendly, amiheco, friend- 



degree : ^ 
varma, ?/^ ^^^^ 



\reg — denotes enlargement, intensity of ^onrpp • c<7 a-^ ^^ 
5 ^omo, a house, domego, a mansion. 
' ] warm, varmega, hot. 

U-e; — denotes flace allotted to : lerni, to learn, jy^ite^ i. 
j^ lernejo, school. Jcuiri, to cook. ^'^^'^^J^^f^^jJ^^ 

kitchen. ^^/dJ 

em — denotes propensity or disposition: ^M^h-^ ji^jj;^ ^ 
to chatter, habilema, loquacious. Tcredi, to be- C<*^^ ^ ^ 
lieve. Tcredema, credulous, paroli, to talk. -^*;^^ '''^''*^ 



/e.^^ 



iut. 



mono, 



^, ^ ^.^j 



collection : 
sahlo, sand, sablero. 



parolema, talkative. 
i>-er — denotes one object of 
t S. money, monero, coin. 
J grain of sand. 

'v -estr — denotes a chief or leader : sipo, ship, sipe-'^jjij^ JJi>- 
stro, caj^tain. ^egnOj^ state, regnestro, ruler. 
^ r -et — denotesomtw'wfiwi 0/ degree, etc. : Za^o, lake. 
I lageto, pond, varma, warm, varmeta, luke- 

* i li warm. 

^ '^ 'id — denotes the young of, the descendant of : Icato, 
\\ cat. Icatido, a kitten, hundo, dog. hundido, 
^ - a puppy. <£:uui4i^,A>tr»^<'titf. 

-t^ — denotes causing something to he: morta, 
dead, mortigi, to kill, hruli, to burn, hruligi, 
to set on fire. -Sj i^a^*i^*y> lU^*.iiC^ . 
'-ig — denotes the action of becoming: ruga, red. 
P^oi n/.^t^i^ to blush, fluida, fluid, fluidigi, to 
V^ become fluid, to melt. ^ ^ oL^ t^^XisJiiti^ ^ 




^ 



-l^ U,/^/^ 






4 



32 ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 

-il — denotes a tool or instrument: hori, to drill. 
horUo, a gimlet, razi, to shave, razilo, a razor. 

-ind — denotes worthiness: admiri, to admire. 
admirinda, worthy of admiration, memori, to 
remember, memorinda, memorable. 

-ing — denotes holder into which one object is put : 
plumo, pen. plumingo, penholder, handelo, 
candle, kandelingo, candlestick. 

'in — denotes feminines: onMo, uncle, onklino, 
aunt. Icolco, cock. Icohino, hen. 

'ist — denotes trade, profession, or occupation: 
drogo, drug, drogisto, a druggist, loto, a 
boot, hotisto, a bootmaker. 

'UJ — denotes container of material or a collection: 
inho, ink. inkujo, inkstand, mono, money. 
monujo, purse. suTcero, sugar, sukerujo, 
sugar-bowl. /^W /^ ifC^ -^ =—^^ '^^Z^. 

'■ul — denotes a man remarTcahle for some quality: ^* 
hrava, brave, hravulo, a brave man. hela, 
beautiful, helulino, a beauty (feminine). 
giho, hump, gihulo, humpback. 

'Um — indefinite suffix playing similar role in 
forming words as ''je" among the preposi- 
tions: plena, full; plenumi, to fulfil, vento, 
wind; ventumilo, fan. Jcruco, cross; Jcru- 
cumi,^ crucify. />*vA^umiU», ^^n ni ' '^^^'^*'^^ c^rddxi 

Examples: Malgajeco, sadness. Mai, contrary; 
gaj\ gay; eco, quality. Malfaciligi, to make diffi^ 



ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE . 33 

cult. Mal^ contrary; facil', easy; igi, to make, to 
cause something to be. 



ESPERANTO TEXTS 

"Simpla, fleksebla, belsona, vere internacia en 
siaj elementoj, la lingvo Esperanto prezentas al la 
mondo civilizita la sole veran solvon de lingvo in- 
ternacia; car, tre facila por homoj nemulte instru- 
itaj, Esperanto estas komprenata sen peno de la 
personoj bone edukitaj. Mil faktoj atestas la 
meriton praktikan de la nomita lingvo." 



(jc'i^^^Hp-'^i^^^J^i *^*Y±^^^^K tr:2irvAJL£t i^<'»*-*ti£i^Lc 



f'^.iJs^^^si^lig^^J^-k^ 









A^ 






RAKONTO 

Mallume kaj nigre estas en la koro de malfelica 
patrino, kiu devas vidi, kiel siaj idetoj suferas mal- 
saton, kaj si havas nenion, per kiu si povus trank- 
viligi tiun obstinan postulanton, la stomakon. 

La nombro da tiaj patrinoj inter la Nov-Jorka 
laboristaro estas sufice granda ankaii en la bonaj 
tempoj, kaj kiam venas la tempoj malbonaj, kiam 
venas ekonomia krizo, tiu nombro pli grandigas 
kaj multigas. 

^rX\iJ^ Kiam Linjo, okjara knabineto, venis hejmen el 
' ^^^ ' ^^ lernejo, si diris al sia patrino : 
jC^J^ "Patrineto, mi estas malsata!" 

La patrino de Lin jo ne havis en la domo ec 

pecon da pano, kaj tial la koro de la malfelica 

virino kvazaii dissirigis pro doloro, kaj sia pala, 

^^ mizera vizago farigis ankoraii pli pala pro la vor- 

1^ fUJC^LO', toj de sia infano. 

"Mi tute ne scias kion doni al vi por mangi/' 
diris la patrino. 

"Kion ajn/' respondis la lerneja knabineto. • 

"Nenio estas en la domo, mia infano/' 

"Mi estas tre, tre malsata ?' , 



Jiucu, >vtrC" 



ESPEEANTO AT A GLANCE 35 

'^Jen baldau alvenos patreto kaj alportos monon ; 
tiam mi iros aceti ion por mangi." 

"Kiam venos patreto?" Linjo demandis. 

"Baldau, mia infano/' respondis la patrino per 

Coj^-'jf^ malforta voco, kaj sia voco estis malforta tial, 6ar c/^ w-^ 

ijgLL^ §i mem forte dubis pri sia promeso. ^^1 

4,^^ Frumatene, kiam la patro de Linjo ekvidis, ke 

en la domo ne estas peco da pano, li foriris al 

amikoj, knn la espero ricevi prunte kelkajn dola- 

rojn. Kaj antaii la foriro lia edzino diris al li: 

"Sciu, ke Linjo foriris en la lernejon neman- 
ginta!" 

"Mi solas, mi scias," li respondis per voco snfo- 
katadelarmoj. til^^ 

"Vi devas alporti iom da mono al la tagmango, ^^lo^ 
se ne, Linjo posttagmeze ree devos iri en la lerne- ^^ 
jon nemanginta." /oU/-^ 

"Mi revenos antaii tagmeze." ^rvS^f^ ^u 

"Vi devas scii, ke mi jam ne havas lokon, kie v^-^. ' 
pruntepreni ion, mi ne povas pruntepreni ec dis- 
rompitan cendon," la virino klarigis al sia edzo la •y^^rt. iuj 
situacion, "kaj en la spice jo oni ne pruntedonos .^ 

al mi ec unn terpomon. Mi jam ne povas mon- ^^^*^'*~Ti^ 
trigi en la strato, car mi suldas monon al ciuj naj- ' '/f*^^ 
baroj — al unu nikelmoneron, al la dua dekcendon 
kaj al la tria kvarondolaron." 

"Bone, bone," respondis la edzo. 

"Vi devas reveni antaii la tagmezo, se ne, Linjo / . . .. 
malsatos," la virino minacis la edzon. ^.x-^^^.**^^ 



36 ESPEEANTO AT A GLANCE 

Kaj tamen la patro de Linjo ne venis tagmeze 
kaj nun estas Jam baldaii vespero kaj li ankoraii 
ne estas hejme. 
^, La koro de la virino estas maltrankvila. Si tute 
^^^ auTX ^'^^ ne solas kion pripensi pri sia edzo. Diversaj, tern- . 
^ Jt ^> • -u^ j-aj pensoj trakuris sian kapon. Sed tamen si es- 53C^'- 
f^'^^^j^ peris, ke la ezdo baldaii venos. Kaj si konsolas sin S^^,^ 
'i*^**^ ^rv A*^ kaj la malfelican infanon per tin ci espero. Sed S^. 
x*^ ^**"/ *^ ankaii tin ci espero ciuminute pli malfortigas. 
ZjMW/^^^I'a^rineto, mi Yolas mangi.'^ 

La patrino eksaltas kvazaii serpento ekmordus / 

"Cu vi scias, mia infano, im en la spicejon !" 
"Mi iros, patrineto, mi iros/' Lin jo diris 
kun mieno de kontenteco pro la propono de la 




f^;- 



'I jjfl% "Alportu bulkojn por tri cendoj kaj kvaronfun- 
\Z^ ton da butero/' la patrino ordonas kion alporti el 
la spicejo. 

"Donu al mi monon," petas Lin jo. 
Sur la vizago de la patrino montrigas mieno 
. . ^ de maldolca ironio kaj si diras al la inf ano : 
*^"^'. Ia'I "Diru al la spicisto, ke poete mi estos en la bu- 
i^^^'^^^X tiko kaj pagos al li/' 
g,. Y^ J "Bone," respondas Linjo. 

. fjU-ot-it^" Kaj la infano foriris en la spicejon. Kaj la pa- 

N^ trino sidas kaj atendas, kaj atendante, si ciam pen- 

' sas pri tio, kion la spicisto respondos al la infano. 

Jen sajnas al si, ke la butiko estas plena de viri- 







ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 37 

noj. Linjo eniras, petas bulkojn kaj buteron, la 

spicisto elpelas la infanon. Kaj poste li rakontas . / ^ 

al ciuj virinoj, ke oni suldas al li multe da mono ^^ 

kaj oni ne volas pagi al li, kaj oni ankorau 

havas arogantecon sendi infanon por ree prunte- 

preni. 

Si sentas ke la eango venas en sian vizagon pro 
honto. Si jam bedauras, ke si sendis la infanon. 
Sed jen Linjo revenas. 

La patrino tuj ekvidas, ke la infano revenis kun 
malplenaj manjL kaj ree sia koro dissirigas. 

"Nu, kion P'Mhpandas la patrino malfacile spi- 
rante. ^ 

"La spicisto diris, i^vi mem venu." 
"Cu iu estis en butmo?" la patrino demandas. 
"Neniu, niir la spicisto." aJ^^l^'-^ijU^^^ 

La patrino ekspiras pli facile. ^ ^^^ 

"Iru, patrineto, en la butikon — mi volas mangi/' 
petas la infano. 

"Jen baldau patreto alvenos kaj tiam mi iros." 
"Kiam patreto alvenos ?'' 
"Baldau, Linjeto. Li devas baldaii alveni." 
"Mi iros en la straton vidi cu li jam iras/' ekdi- 
ris la malsata knabineto. 
"Jes, mia infano, iru !" 

Kaj Linjo forkuris en la straton. j, . /^a^i^^aA^ ^ 

Poste §i tuj alkuras kun granda gojo. aJunM^*^^^! ^^^^^^ ^^,4^ 
"Rigardu, patrineto, rigardu! Vidu kion mi uA^i^ujfr*^ 
trovis ? monon !'' , tJj<ij . 



38 ESPERANTO AT A GLAKCE 

Kaj Lin jo montris paperan monbileton. 
"Dolaro !" la patrino ekkriis per nehomaj fortaj, 
"dolaro! Infano mia, Linjeto! Kiel? Kie, mia 
karulino ?" 

"Apud la domo." 
La virino tremis pro felico. 
"Nun mi kuros en la butikon aceti bonajn man- 
yy \ 9 S^j^i^ ^^j preparos por mia felica filineto ka- 
5^<M. ( /wi/t^y 7 ^ ran, bonan tagmangon/' la patrino ekkriis pro 



AyJ 



?0]0- 



'^^ iZrr^^ "Kaj mi scias kin perdis la dolaron/^ Linjo 
J, £*/'iiiA'*»«-<*^-' diris tute senkulpe. 
^, ^^^^ff^"^^^ La koro de 1' patrino forte ekf rapis. 
^ ' "Kiel vi scias tion?" 

f(,^^^ J/aitrnii^4i^ "Mi vidis sinjorinon Newman, de la nnua etago, 
serci ion." -/fr 

"Kiel do vi scias kion si sercis?" 
"Tesi, sia knabineto, diris al mi : Patrineto per- 
dis monon/' 

"Cu vi diris al Tesi, ke vi trovis gin ?" demandas 
la patrino per sufokita voco. 

"Ne, mi ne diris; mi venis antaue rakonti al 
. . vi." 
c,^«./r^^fc^ gtono defalis de la koro de V patrino. 

' i^Oil^ /f**^-'^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ vizago kovrigas per multpeza nubo. 
La patrino de Linjo ne estas malklera virino; 
si scias la signifon de infana edukado, kaj tial si 
• 'jtvT^***, ciam penadis enradikigi bonajn morojn en la ko- 
jlm,^Ua^ JL^, reto de sia malgranda filineto. 

U.*^r>^r ^- S-^ *^--^ U a.l..«^,.<J^ .r^ 



LcnrtY^^ 



ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 39 . 

"Kion si nun f aru ? Kiel agi ? Cu si f orprenu .^jtZsj-^^ ^-~^ 
la dolaron? Kaj se Linjo faros demandojn? Ju^-yf;^^^* ' 
Kian respondon si havos ? Kaj se Linjo kuros mal- I Li 

supren kaj babilos, ke si trovis la dolaron? Cu ^ >.*• 
si ordonu al Linjo silenti ? Kiel la knabineto kom- ^^j^l^^l^rU^ 
prenos tion? Cu si ne regardos la patrinon, kiel -/-//• ^ . 
stelintinon ? Tiuj . kaj aliaj similaj pensoj treege Sc^-*^^'"^*-^^^'*^^/ 
turmentis la malfelican patrinon. ^^ ^^^^fil 

"Patrineto, mi iros demandi sinjorinon New- ^**^'/**'/ ^^^^ 
man : cu si perdis la dolaron ?" Linjo ekdiria tute ^^^ t^o-i^fUJiJi 
senkulpe. MXJUfjlJ^f<^ 

"Jes. Iru!" k^:^n 

La patrino kun koro kvazaii malviva atendis la ^"^^/sf^ * . /• r 
revenon de Lmjo. t±4. sXZm^^ *^ ^ 

"Eble la infano faras ian eraron. Eble la r ^Mt.4^jt frer^^ 
dolaro ne apartenas al sinjorino N." — la patrino cu^^en^, «nr- -^ 
provis esperi. Sed sia espero baldaii malaperis. '2zC»^ ^ ^'^^T^ 
Linjo revenis. .^ira^^ *7*^^ 

"Jes, patrinetOj la dolaro estas de sinjorino N.''^;*-. ^iaJ^J^m^ 
"Kion si diris?'' demandas la patrino. v'/t,;.>^ ^t^r*^ x^ 

^'^i diris, ke mi estas tre bona knabino. ^vv ^^^^^i 
iris en kukejon^ acetis kukojn kaj volis doni al da^^^T'^^^r 



mi." 

"Nu, kial vi ne prenis?" 



.(g^^t^KZJLXu 



"yJi*' '^^^ •'^ c.\2im diris al mi, ke mi nenion prenu d^' 
^ lu/' Linjo respondis demandante, per voco sufo- ^^^^"^^£1 ^J. 
,4>ykata de larmoj, kaj ekploris. ^^*«n, i^ ^^i.^f^£^ ^^h!^!!3^'2i^^* 
«/ "Linjeto, infano mia !" la patrino komencis. ^-^ >u>-*-«- ^M 

Jr.tJ ' - j^^^t:.!^ 1 JSyd- f^^-^f^ ^'^'^^ ^^^- 



40p^ ESPEEANTO AT A GLANCE 

J^^ ^^i<*^^j/^isadi la inf anon. "Jen alvenas patreto. Kaj mi 
-ry^^j^, /•^-^^'^ acetos por vi kukojn, kiom vi nur volos." 



^n^*^^^<^*tfT^ ^'Mi estas malsata, patrineto!" 



Kaj la malfelica patrino ne eltenis plu kaj ek- 



^^ '^^^^J^^v^^ /ploris kune knn sia infano. Sca,^^ 

^^^^ .i^'t^-M^ — ^^^ jargona originalo esperantigis. ^^^ 

'y2i. B, V. Eeich. 



'p 



I 



To translate any Esperanto text one must look 
in the vocabulary, which contains all the roots and 
/ suffixes without their endings a, o, e, etc. 



^ Jo <xr»'*«^^'*^^^ 



/m.tfii^«*>*^ 












C£!!:!!---5^ ' ^ ^ ^ ESPERANTO — ENGLISH ^ \_*^ 

This contains all the words of the Universala 
Vortaro of Dr. Zamenhof, with the exception of a 
few rarely used zoological and botanical names of 
Latin origin, and a small number of words taken 
from the English language, which are of inter- 
national use and significance (such as loJcomotiv' , 
talent', horizontal', etc.). 

Abbreviations : n. =noun ; tr. =:transitive ; 
intr.=intransitive; t.^ termination; e.:=ending; 
d. or den. =: denotes. 



a, t. of adj. 
ahat', abbot 
aheV, bee 
ahi', fir 

abon\ subscribe (to jour- 
nal) 
acer\ maple 
acid', acid, sour 
acet', buy 
ad', d. duration 
adiau, good-bye 



admir, admire 

admon', admonish 

ador, adore 

adult', to commit adul- 
tery 

aer', air 

afaiV, affable, kind . * 

afeW, to be affected, /! ^.^ A^^ **^' 

afer, affair, business 
matter 

afranh', put stamp on a 
letter 
act 



ag 



41 



42 



ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 



agV, eagle 

agord\ tune (instr.) 

agrahl', agreeable 

ag\ age 

ajV, garlic 

ajuj ever; kiu who, Iciu 
ajn whoever 

aj' , d. concrete ideas 

aJccet, to hasten (tr.) 
35j akcent', accent 
nw^ f akcept', accept, welcome 
Mi'i^C^- aJccipitr, hawk 

a^ir', acquire 

aA;7i', pimple 

ahompan', accompany 

dkr\ sharp 

alcrid', grasshopper 

aJcs\ axle * 

a^iAs'^ deliver a woman 

akv\ water 

al, to 

alaud', lark (bird) 

o-Zi', other 

almenaUj at least 

almoz, alms 

a?^', high 

altern, alternate 

aZ^/.cZ', allude 

alumet', match, lucifer 

am, love 

amasy crowd, mass 

amhau, both 

ambos, anvil 

ameV, starch 

amiJc', friend 



amplehs, extent 

amuz, amuse 

an , d. member 

anas', duck 

angiV, eel 

anguV, corner, angle 

angeV, angel 

anim, soul 

ankau, also 

ankorau, yet, still 

an^-/, anchor 

anonc, announce 

anser, goose 

anstatau, instead of 

anf , e. of pres. part. act. 

antau, before 

antikv, old (hist.) 

apart', separate (adj.) 

aparten, belong . 

apenau, scarcely k^i^JA 

aper, appear 

apog', lean (vb.) 

April', April 

aproh', approve 

apud, near, by 

ar^ d. collection 

arane, spider 

arh', tree 

arc, bow, fiddlestick 

ar(^e', heron 

ardez, slate 

ar^tZ', clay 

argent', silver 

arA;', arch, bow 

arf , art 



ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 



43 



artiflTc, cunning 
artik', joint 
as, e. of pres. tense 
at', e. of pr. part. pas. 
ataki', attack 
atenc, attempt (t/i^»njL) 
atend', wait, expect 
atenf, attentive 
atesf, attest, certify 
ating\ attain, arrive at 
atut', trump (c-tJ^JL^ 
au, or, au. .au either, .or 
aud', hear 
August', August 
aushuW, listen 
autun\ autumn 
av, grandfather 
avar', avaricious 
aveV, hazelnut 
aven', oats 
aventur, adventure 
avert', warn 
avid', covet, eager for 
azen, ass, donkey 
azot', nitrogen 

B 

habiV, chatter 

hagateV, trifle 

hale', bake 

hala', sweep 

halanc', s w ay, swing 

(tr.) 
halhuf, stammer 



haldau, soon 

halen', whale 

ban, bathe (tr.) 

bant', bow (of ribbon) 

bapf, baptize 

bar', bar, obstruct 

barakt', struggle 

barb', beard 

barbir, barber 

bareV, keg, barrel 

bash', coat tail 

boston', stick 

bat', beat 

bataV, fight 

bed', bed (garden) 

bedaur , pity, regret 

beh', beak 

beV, beautiful, fine 

ben, bless 

benh', bench 

ber, berry 

best', beast, animal 

betuV, birch (tree) 

bezon', need, want 

&{e/i', goods, estate 

&ier', beer 

bind', bind (books) 

&irc^', bird 

blank', white 

&/e^', cry (of beasts) 

blind', blind 

blond', fair (of hair) 

&Zot;', blow 

blu, blue 

&o', d. relat. by marriage 



44 



ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 






lijwJ^. 



hoat', boat 

hof, bark (dog's) 

hoV, boil (intr.) 

hon, good 

hor'y bore (tr.) 

&or(i', shore, bank 

h order , border, hem 

hors\ bourse, exchange 

hot', boot 

hotel', bottle 

hov, ox 

Irak', arm (of the body) 

hram', bream 

brand', branch 

brand', brandy 

brasih', cabbage 

bret', shelf 

brid', bridle 

brik', brick 

briV, shine (intr.) 

broc', brooch 

brod', embroider 

brog, scald 

bros', brush 

bru, noise 

brul', bum (intr.) 

brun, brown 

brusf, chest, breast 

ftr-M-f , brute, cattle 

bub', lad, urchin 

&wc', slaughter 

buf, toad 

5w^r, ringlet, curl 

but, clod, ball 

6wZ&', bulb, onion 



/ 



bulk', roll (bread) 
burd', drone (insect) 
&Mr^', citizen 
burg on , bud 
&ws', mouth 
buter, butter 
b utile', shop 
buton, button 

C 

cerf', to yield 

cejan, cornflower 

eel', aim, object 

cend', cent (coin) 

cen^^ hundred 

cerb', brain, mind 

cert', certain, sure 

cerv', deer 

ceter, rest, remaining 

cifer, cypher, numeral 

cigar', cigar 

cigared', cigarette 

cign, swan 

cikoni', stork 

cim', bug 

cindr, ash, cinder 

cir', shoe-polish 

cirhonstanc , c i r c u m- 
stance 

cirkuler, circular (no- 
tice) 

cit' , cite, mention 

citron, lemon 

col', inch 



ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 46 



cagren, grieve (tr.) 

darnbr, room 

can', cock (of a gun) 

cap\ cap 

capeT, hat 

capitr, chapter 

car, for, because 

carlatan , charlatan 

carm, charm 

carnir, hinge 

carpent', carpentry 

cas, hunt, chase 

cast', chaste 

ce, at, with 

cef, chief 

cemiz, shirt 

cen', chain 

ceriz, cherry 

cerlc, coffin 

cerp, draw (from any 
source) 

ces, cease, desist 
' fA^ cevaV, horse 
**•/ / ci, d. proximity: tie 
'ci-tMV, there; tie ci, here 

cia, every (kind) 

ciam, always 

die, everywhere 

ciel, in every manner 

cieV, heaven, sky 

dies, everybody's 

cif, crumple, crease 

cifon, rag 



ciJcan, chicanery 

cio, everything, all 

ciom, all of it 

cirkaUf round, about 

ciu, each, every one 

ciz, chisel, carve 

cj', d. masc. affect, di- 
minutives 

cu, whether; asks a ques- 
tion uUju* ^^^***- ^ *4« J"^ Ic^iv^rfiSttU 

D 

da is used instead of de 

after words expressing 

weight or measure : 

junto da viando, a 

pound of meat 
daJctil', date (fruit) 
danc, dance 
dand', dandy 
danger', danger 

danlc, thank / ^^ f 

dat', date (time) cUUM/nv. ^^ 
daur, endure, last 
de of, from; with pass. 

part, hy 
dec, becoming 
Decemhr, December 
decid', decide (tr.) 
decifr, decipher 
dedic , dedicate 
defend', defend 
degel' , thaw 
dejor, be on duty 



46 



ESPEEANTO AT A GLANCE 



dek, ten 

dehliv', slope 

dekstr, right-hand 

delir, be delirious 

demand', ask 

dens', dense, close 

dent', tooth 

denunc, denounce 

depend', depend 

des, the {ju..des the.. 

the) 
desegn, design 
detaV, detail 
detru, destroy 
dev , must, dev'ig' compel 
deviz', device, motto 
dezert', (the) desert 
dezir, desire, wish 
Di', God 
diahl', devil 
diboc, debauchery 
difeJct', to damage 
diferenc, differ 
difin, define, destine 
dig', dike 
dik', thick, stout 
dikt', dictate 
diligent', diligent 
dimanc, Sunday 
dir', say, tell 
direkt' , direct, steer 
dis', d. separation 
diskont', discount 
dispon, dispose 
disput', dispute 



stine 



disting', distinguish 

distr , distract 

diven, divine, guess 

divers', various, diverse 

divid', divide 

do, then, accordingly 

dole', sweet 

dolor', pain, ache 

dom', house _^ 

domag, (it is a) pity nUfrtt^ 

don, give "^-^f^u^^, 

donac, make a present 

dorlot', coddle . . j 

dorm, sleep cU^'"^,*^^^ 

dorn, thorn 

dors', (the) back 

dot', dowry 

drap , woolen cloth 

dras, thrash 

dres', train (animal) 

drink', drink (to excess) 

drog', drug 

dron'y drown, sink (intr.) 

du, two 

dub', doubt 

duk', duke 

dum, during, while, 

whilst 
dung, hire (servant) 



E 



e, t. of adv. 

eh en, even, smooth 

ehV, d. possibility 



ESPEEANTO AT A GLANCE 



41 






ec, d. abst. idea 

ec, even (adv.) 

edif, edify 

eduk', educate 

edz\ husband 

efehtiv, real, actual 

efilc , have effect 

eg', d. increase 

egaV, equal 

e%\ echo 

ef, d. place allotted to 

ek', d. sudden or open- 
ing act 

eks', ex- (who has been) 

eJcscif, excite 

eTcshurs', trip 

ehsped', dispatch 

eJcster, outside 

elcsterm, crush out 

ekstrem, extreme 

ekzamen, examine 

ekzempV, example 

eTczerc , exercise 

ekziV, banish 

ehzist', exist 

el, out of, from among 

elefant', elephant 

eleM, choose 

em\ d. propensity 

embaras', puzzle, embar- 
rass 

emhush', ambush 

enigm', puzzle 

entrepren', undertake 

enu'j be wearied 



envi , envy 
er, d. unit 
erar, error, mistake 
erinac, hedgehog 
ermif, hermit 
erp', harrow 
escept', except 
eslcadr, squadron 
esper\ hope 
esplor', explore 
esprirriy express 
est', be (verb aux.) 
estim , esteem 
esting, extinguish 
estr , d. chief 
esafod', scaffold 
ef, d. diminution 
etag, story (of house) 
etend', extend (tr.) 
etern, eternal 
evit', avoid 
ezoh' , pike (fish) 



fah', bean 

fab el' , tale, story 

fabV, fable 

fabrih', factory 

facil', easy /^y 

faden, thread ^^*^^^^^^X^ 

fag', beech-tree i^rt/^^'^'^^ 

fajf, whistle 

fajl', file (tool) 

fajr', fire / ^ ^^ 

fah', compartment jp^^h*^*^^*''^ 




48 



ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 



faM, fact 
faktur, invoice 
faV,^ fall 

falc, mow, cut grass 
fald', fold 
falh'y falcon 
fdls, falsify 
fam, fame, rumour 
famili', family 
fand', cast (metal) 
fantom', ghost 
far, do, make 
faring', pharynx 
farm', take on lease 
fart', be (well or un- 
well) 
farun, flour 
fask', bundle 
fast', fast (vb.) 
fauk\ jaws, gullet 
favor, favour 
fazan', pheasant 
fehr , fever 
Fehruar, February 
fee', lees, sediment 
fein', fairy 
fel', hide, fleece 
felic, happy, lucky 
felt', felt 
femur, thigh 
/encZ', split, rive (tr.) 
fenestr, window 
fer , iron 

ferdek', deck (of ship) 
ferm', shut, close 



fervor , zeal 
/esf , festival 
festen', banquet 
fianc, betrothed 
fibr', fibre 
^^', to rely upon 
fidel', faithful 
fier, proud 

fig'y fig 

^^i/r', image, represent 
fil', son 
/i?t^', fern 

fin, end, finish (tr.) 
fingr', finger 
^rm', firm 
/?s', fish 
flam', flame 
flanJc', side, flank 
/Zar', smell (tr.) 
^af, flatter 
flav', yellow 
fieg', nurse (the sick) 
fleJcs, bend 
^iZ::'^ patch, mend 
flirt', flit, flirt 
flok', flake 
/Zor', flower 
/?os', raft 
flu, flow 
M',^ fly (vb.) 
fluid', fluid 
^iff , flute 
foir, fair (subst.) 
/o;', time (three times, 
&c.) 



ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 



49 



fojn\ hay 
folc', seal (animal) 
foil, leaf, sheet 
fond', found, start 
font', spring, fount 
fontan, fountain 
for, forth, out, away 
forges', forget 
forg', forge, smithy 
fork', fork 
form', shape 
formik', ant 
forn, stove, furnace 
fort', strength 
fortik', strong, solid 
fos',^ dig 
fost', post, stake 
frag', strawberry 
fraf, spawn 
frak', dress coat 
frakas, shatter 
fraksen, ash (tree) 
framason, freemason 
framh', raspberry 
fraud', -ajo, sweets, dain- 
ties 
frang, fringe 
frap, hit, strike 
fraf, brother 
frauV, bachelor 
fremd', foreign 
frenez, crazy, mad 
fres, fresh, new 
fripon, rogue 
friz', dress (hair) 



fromag, cheese 

frost', frost 

frot', rub 

fru, early 

frugileg', rook 

frukt', fruit 

frunt', forehead 

ftiz, phthisis 

fulg', soot 

fulm, lightning 

fum', smoke 

fund', bottom 

fundament' , foundation 

funehr, funeral 

funeV, funnel 

fung', mushroom 

funt', pound 

furag, forage 

furioz, rage 

fus, bungle 

fut', foot (measure) 



ga] ,gay, merry 

gajn, gain, earn 

gar,ga\\ 

galos, rubber-shoe 

gamas, gaiter 

gant', glove 

garanti', guarantee / 

garl', sheaf, shock ^^'^'^^^^^^ 

gard' , guard 

gar gar , rinse, gargle 

gas', gas 



50 



ESPEEANTO AT A GLANCE 



vii/Li^ 



gast', guest 


grinc, to grate (intr.) 


gazet\ newspaper 


griz, grey 


ge, d. both sexes 


gros, gooseberry 


general', general (mili- 


gru, crane (bird) 


tary officer) 


grup, group 


gent'^ tribe 


gudr, tar 


genu, knee 


gum', gum, mucilage 


gest', gesture 


gurd', barrel organ 


glaci, ice 


gust', taste (noun) 


glad', to iron 


gut', drop, drip 


glan, acorn 


guvern', -istino, govern- 


glas' , glass, tumbler 


ess 


glat', smooth / 
glav, sword a/^ ^^^*<^. 


gvardi', guard (military) 


gvid', to guide 


glW, glide, slide 




gloh' , globe 


G 


glor, glory 


glu,^ glue 


garden', garden 


^Zwf, swallow (vb.) 


gem', groan 


gorg, throat 


gen, incommode 


^raci', graceful 


general', general (adj.) 


grad' , degree 


gentiV, polite 


graf, earl, count 


germ', germ 


grajn, a grain, pip 


gi, it 


grand', great, tall 


^i6', hump 


gras', fat 


giraf, giraffe 


graf, scratch 


^is^ until, as far as 


gratuV, congratulate 


§oj\ m, glad 


grav', important 


gu, enjoy 


graved', pregnant 


^ws^', exact, right 


gravur', engrave 




gren'j grain 


H 


gri', gruel 


grifeV, slatepencil 


ha, ah 


griV, cricket (insect) 


7ia;7', hail 



ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 



51 



hah', to chop 
liaT , great room, hall 
haladz, bad exhalation 
JiaW, stop (intr.) 
liar', hair 
hard', harden 
haring', herring 
harp , harp 
haut' , skin, hairless 
hav, have 

haven, port, harbour 
heder, ivy 
hejm', home 
/le/f, heat (vb.) 
Bjjf^ Tier, bright, glaring 
j/jLf^ help , help 
•^ hepat', liver 
/ier6', grass 
hered', inherit 
Tiero', hero 
hierau, yesterday 
hipohrit', feign 
hirud', leech 
hirund', swallow (bird) 
histrih' , porcupine 
ho! oh! 
hodiau, to-day 
hole', hook 
Tiom', man 
honest', honest 
honor , honour 
hont', shame 
hor', hour 
horde, barley 
horlog, clock, watch 



^4ji£. 



hosti, sacred host 
huf, hoof 
humil', humble 
humor', humour, temper 
hund', dog 

H 

%aos , chaos 
fiemi', chemical 
fiimer, chimera 
holer', cholera 
fior', chorus, choir 



i, t. of infinitive 
ia, some (any) kind 
ial^ for some (any) cause, 

reason 
iam, at some (any) time, 

ever, once 
id', d. descendant of 
ide', idea 

ie, some-, anywhere 
iel, some-, anyhow 
ies, some-, any one's 
ig', d. causing to be 
ig', d. becoming 
il', d. instrument 
ill, they, them 
ilumin, illuminate 
imag', imagine 
imit' , imitate 
imperi', empire 



62 



ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 



implik', entangle 
impres, impression felt, 

influence 
in', d. feminine 
incif, provoke, incite, 

tease 
ind', d. worthy of 
indign', indignant 
indulg, to be indulgent 
infan, child 
infeht'y infect 
infer , hell 
influ, influence 
ing', d. holder 
iniciat', initiate 
inJc', ink 

inhlin, inclined to 
inselct'y insect 
insid\ ensnare 
instig', instigate 
instrii, teach 
insuV, island 
insult', insult, abuse 
int', past part. act. 
intend , intend 
inter, between, among 
interes, interest 
intern , inner, inside 
intest', intestine 
intrig', to plot 
invit', invite 
io, some-, anything 
iom', a little, some, rather 
iV, go 
is, d. past tense 



ist', d. profession 
it', d. past part. 
iu, some-, any one 
izoV, isolate 

J 

j, t. of the plural . 

ja, in fact tl^\Jlj^ 

jak', jacket 

jam, already 

Januar, January 

jar, year 

je, indefinite preposition 

jen, behold ! lo ! 

jes, yes 

ju — des, the . . the 

jug', yoke 

jugland' , walnut . ^ f^. 

jug', judge i^t^f^^ 

juk' , itch ^ 

Juli, July 

jun, young 

jung', to couple, harness 

Juni', June 

jup, petticoat, skirt 

ju^t', just, righteous 

juveV, jewel 

J 

jaluz, jealous 
jaud', Thursday 
jet', throw 
jongV, juggle 



iJiA 



jur , swear 

jus' , just, at the very 
moment 



Tcac', pap 

Tcadr , frame / .•J, 

leaduh', frail th^V\/f^ 

leaf , coffee 

hag, cage 

TcaheV, dutch tile 

Z;ay, and 

Jcajer, paper-covered book 

hajut\ cabin, hut 

IcaV, corn (on foot) 

Jcaldron'j boiler 

Icales , carriage 

Icalih', chalice, cup 

tcdlh', lime 
jj r, halTcan, heel 
XJc/y'lcancuV , reckon 
> HxL^^f^^^^^' '> nnderdrawers 
f 'Jcalumni, slander 

hamhi', bill of exchange 

IcameV, camel 

Teamen', fireplace 

learner , camera 

iSCJ^^^^'^ field . 

^^Ican', csiJie(JU^a^J 

/^[^'^ Tcandb', hemp ^ 
IcanajV, scoundrel 
hanap, sofa, lounge 



ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 53 



leankr' , crayfish 
Icani! , sing 
leap , head 
IcapabV, capable 



Teanari', canary A£V^ ^ 



IcandeV, candle 



leapr, goat 
leapric, whim 
kapt', catch 
lear, dear 

learaf, carafe, decanter 
learV, coal 
hard', thistle 
hares', caress 
harot', carrot 
harp, carp (fish) 
A:arf, card, map 
harton, cardboard 
has', cash box 
haserol' , stewpan 
hash', helmet 
hasteV, castle 
hastor, beaver 
has, hide (vb.) 
hastan, chestnut 
hat', cat 
hatar, catarrh 
haten', fetter 
hauz, cause 
Zi^tti;', cave, hollow 
havern, cavern 
haz', case (gram.) 
he, that (conj.) 
A;er, cellar 
heW, some, several 
helner, waiter 



64 



ESPEEANTO AT A GLANCE 



hern, kernel 
Tcest' , chest, box 
hia, what kind of 
Icial, why, wherefore 
Tciam, when 
hie, where 
hiel, how, as 
hies, whose 
hio, what (thing) 
hiom, how much 
his , kiss 
fcm, who, which 
hlaft', fathom (ms.) 
Mar, clear, plain 
Mas', class, sort 
Mav', key (piano) 
A;Zer', educated 
hlin', bend, incline 
hlopod', take trouble 
AjZwz', sluice 
hnab', boy 
hned', to knead 
hohold', goblin, imp 
Aroyn', wedge 
ifcoA;', cock 
hohs', hip 
^or, neck 
holhas , sausage 
holeg', colleague 
holeht' , collect 
holer , angry 
holomh' , dove 
holon , column 
holor, colour 
hol'um, collar 



horn, comma 

homb', comb 

homenc', commence (tr.) 

homerc, trade 

homfort', comfort 

homisi', commission 

homitat', committee 

homiz, clerk 

homod' , chest of drawers 

hompar, compare 

hompat', to pity 

homplez , obliging, kind 

hompost', set (type) 

hompren', understand 

homun', common 

hon' , know (be acquaint- 
ed with) 

hondamn, condemn 

hondic, stipulation 

honduh', to conduct 

honduf, to behave 

honfid', to trust 

honfuz, to confuse 

honh', shell 

honhlud', conclude, infer 

honhur, compete 

honhurs, enter into com- 
petition 

honsci', be conscious 

honserv, preserve 

honsiV, to advise 

honsol', console 

honstat', to state, estab- 
lish (a fact) 

honstern', amaze 



ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 



56 



Jconstru, to build 

Icontant', cash down 

Icontor, office (com.) 

hontrau, against 

Iconven, to suit, befitting 

Iconvinh', convince 

Tcor, heart 

l^orh', basket 

Tcord', cord (music) 

Icoreht', to correct 

Icorh', cork 

Icorn, horn 

horp, body 

Icort', court, yard 

Icorv', raven 

Z;o5f , cost, price 

hof, dirt 

hoton, cotton 

Jcoturn, quail (bird) 

^oi;', to brood 

Tcovert', envelope 

hovr, cover 

Tcrac, spit (saliva) 

Icrad', grate 

Icrajon, pencil 
1^ Icramp, clamp 
AAf^ hran, tap, spigot 
\j^ji/Z Icrani , skull 

Tcravat', cravat 

A:re', create 

Icred'y believe 

Jcrem', cream 

hren, horse-radish 
(wild) 

Tcresh', grow, increase 



hret'y chalk 
Icrev, burst (intr.) 
lcri\ cry, shout 
IcriW, to sift 
Icrim', crime 
IcripV, crippled 
A;roc', hook to, cling to 
Tcrom, besides, in ad- 
dition to 
Jcron, crown 
kroz', to cruise 
kruc, jug, pitcher 
hruc, cross 
Tcrud', raw 
IcrueV, cruel' 
A;rwr', leg 
A;ri/^', steep 
hubut' , elbow 
Icudr', sew 
^i/f, woman's cap 
TcugV, bullet 
A:mr', cook 
huh' , cooky, cake 
huhoV, cuckoo 
hukum', cucumber 
huhurh', pumpkin 
huV, gnat 
huler , spoon 
hulp, fault, blame 
hurt, with, A;i^7i'e together 
hunihl', rabbit 
hupr, copper 
hur', to run 
hurac, cure, treat 
hurag', courage 



66 



ESPEEANTO AT A GLANCE 



Tcurh', curve 
Tcurten, curtain 
husen, cushion 
Tcus, lie (down) 
kutim', custom 
kuv', tub, vat 
kuz, cousin 
kvankam, although 
kvant', quantity 
kvar, four 
kvartal', quarter 

town) 
kvazau, as if 
kverk', oak 
kviet', calm 
kvin, five 
kvitanc, receipt 



V, la, the 
labor , labour 
lac, weary, tired 
lacert', lizard 
lac, lace (boot) 
lad', tin plate 
laf, lava 
lag', lake 
lak', varnish 
lake', lackey 
laks', diarrhoea 
lakt', milk 
lam, lame 
lamp , lamp 
Ian, wool 
land', land, country 



{glvufu^j 



(of 



kn^', tongu( 

lantern , lantern 

lanug', down, fluff 

/ar^', bacon * 

larg, broad, wide 

laring , larynx 

larm', tear (of eye) 

las', leave, let 

last', last, latest 

lau, according to 

laub, green arbour 

laud', praise 

laut', loud, aloud 

lav, wash 

lecion, lesson 

led', leather 

leg', read 

legom', vegetable 

leg, law 

/Lf, lentil *ttSwbt'5l^^^ 
lentug', freckle <^i^>C^v 

Zeon', lion 
lepor', hare 
Zerri', learn 
lert', skilful, clever 
le>ter, letter, epistle 
lev, lift, raise 
Zi, he (him) 
liher, free 
Zt&r', book 
lien, spleen 
Kg', bind, tie 
lign, wood (the sub- 
stance) 



ESPEEANTO AT A GLANCE 



57 



Urn', limit 
limah', snail ifou-^ 
lin, flax ^ 

lingv , language 
lini', line 
lip , lip 
?^f , bed 

liter , letter (of the al- 
phabet) 
liver , supply, deliver 
log', entice 
log, to lodge, live 
loTc', place, locality 
long', long 
lorn', opera-glass 
lot', draw lots 
lu', rent 
?t/-(i', play 
luV, lull asleep 
Zi/.m', light, 'i to shine 
lumh', loins 
Zt/*rt', moon 
Zwnd', Monday 
Zi^p', wolf 
lupol', hops 
Zw5^r', chandelier 
lut', solder 
Zi^^/, otter 

M 

mac, unleavened bread 
mac, chew 
m/igazen', warehouse 
magi!, magic 



Maf, May 
majest', majesty 
majstr, master (pro- 
fession) 
mahler', broker 
makul', stain, spot 
makzeV, jaw 
maV , d. opposites 
malgrau, in spite of 
mam', breast (female) 
ma/i', hand 
mang', to eat 
manier , manner 
manik', sleeve 
mank', lack, want 
mar, sea 
marc, swamp 
mar Sand', to bargain 
mard', Tuesday 
mark', mark, stamp 
marmor , marble 
Mart', March 
mars, march 
marteV, hammer 
mason, do mason's work 
mast' , mast 

mastr, master (of house) 
mas', mesh 
masin, machine 
maten, morning 
matrac, mattress 
matur , ripe 

melV, piece of furniture 
mec, wick 
me-yZ', mile 






68 



ESPEEANTO AT A GLANCE 



met, badger 
mehagr', turkey 
melk', milk (vb.) 
mem, self, selves 
memhr , member 
memor', memory 
mend , order (goods) 
mensog', tell a lie 
menton , chin 
merit', merit 
merhred', Wednesday 
met', put, place 
meti', handicraft 
mev', sea-gull 
mez, middle 
mezur, measure 
mi, I (me) 
mieV, honey 
mien , mien 
migdaV, almond 
migr, migrate 
miles', mix 
mil, thousand 
mint' , war 
minac, to threaten 
miop, short-sight 
miozot', forget-me-not 
mir, wonder 
mister', mystery 
mizer , misery 
moder, moderate 
modest', modest 
mole', to mock 
moV, soft 
mon'j money 



monafi', monk 

monarV, monarch 

monat' , month 

mond', world 

mont' , mountain 

montr, show 

mor, habit, usage 

morbil', measles 

mord', bite 

morgan, to-morrow 

mort', die 

morter, mortar 

most', general title. Vi'a 
reg'a most'o, your maj- 
esty, vi'a most'o, your 
honour 

mov', move (tr.) 

muet, mill vItT 

mug', to roar (wind, &c.) 

muk', mucus 

mult', much, many 

mur, wall 

mus', mouse 

mush', moss 

muskol' , muscle 

mustard', mustard 

mus , fly (a) 

mut', dumb 



N 

n, end. of direct obj. 
naci', nation 
nag', swim 



ESPEEANTO AT A GLANCE 



59 



najhar, neighbour 
najl', nail 

najtingal', nightingale 
nap', turnip 
nasJc', give oirth 

nasTiig , be born 
natur', nature 
nau, nine 
nauz', to sicken 
naz', nose 
ne^ no, not 
nebul' , fog 
neces, necessary 
negoc, business 
neg, snow 

neh — neJc, neither — nor 
nenia, no kind of 
neniam, never 
nenie, nowhere 
neniel, nohow 
nenies, no one's 
nenio, nothing 
neniom, not a bit 
neniu, nobody 
nep, grandson 
nepr, unfailingly 
nest\ nest 
net', clean copy 
nev' , nephew 
ni, we, us 
nigr black 
niveV, level 

nj , d. fern, affect, dim. 
nohel', nobleman 
nohV, noble 



noht' , night 

nom', name 

nombr, number 

nort^', north 

nov, new 

Novemhr, November 

nul well! 

nuanc, shade, hue 

nub', cloud 

ni^^', naked 

wwZ;', nape of neck 

nuks, nut 

nuV , zero 

numer', number (No.) 

nun, now 

wi/r^ only (adv.) 

nutr, nourish, feed 



0, end. of nouns 

obe, obey 

ohjeht', thing, object 

obr, . .-fold, duo'bV, two- 
fold 

obstin, obstinate 

odor, odour, smell 

of end', offend ^ / A 

ofer, to offer (as sacri- Offff^^/^/ 
fice, gift, &c.) foiaTui Jg. 

o^c, office (employment) ^^ • J ^ 

o/f , often "\a/n/Lf f^ 

oh, eight » /^ 

oA;^;^', occur, -o occasion, 
case 




60 



ESPEEANTO AT A GLANCE 



olccident', west 

OMohr, October 

okuV, eye 

ohup, occupy 

ol, than 

ole, oil 

omar, lobster 

ombr , shadow 

omhreV , umbrella 

on, d. fractions 

ond\ wave 

oni, one, people, they 

onhl' , uncle 

oni\ end. fut. part. act. 

op, d. collective numer- 
als 

opini', to opine 

oportun, handy 

or, gold 

ord\ order, regularity 

or den , order (decora- 
tion) 

ordon', order, command 

Orel' , ear 

orf, orphan 

orgen', organ (music) 

orient' , east 

or nam, ornament 

OS, end. of fut. tense 

osced', yawn 

ost', bone 

ostr', oyster 

of, end. fut. part. pass. 

ov, egg 

oval', oval 



pac , peace 
pacienc', patience 
paf, shoot, fire 
pag, pay 



pag, page (book) A^^^C^/j 

pajV, straw f IjQ^ 

pak', pack, put up v irfr^J* 

pal', pale 

palac, palace 

palls', stake 

pa?p', touch, feel 

palpehr, eyelid 

/?an', bread 

pantalon, trousers 

pantofl', slipper 

pap, pope 

papag', parrot 

papav', poppy 

paper', paper 

papili, butterfly 

;?a/ , pair, brace 

pardon , forgive 

parenc, relation 

parTcer', by heart 

parol', speak 

j5arf , part 

parti', party, partial j^ 

pa.', pass A^MUJAe^ 

paser , sparrow /••^ ^^/j^ 

pasi', passion 

pasZ;', Easter 

past', paste ^ j _ _ .„ 

pasiec', pie •^^-^t^^t^ 



ESPEEANTO AT A GLANCE 



61 



hn, 



pastr, priest, pastor 

pas, to step 

past\ pasture (for cattle) 

pat\ frying-pan 

*patr', father 

pauz, to pause 

pav', peacock 

pavim', pavement 

pec, piece 

pec', pitch 

peg', woodpecker 

pejzag, landscape 

pek', sin 

pehV, to pickle 

pel', drive, chase away 

pelt', fur 

pelv, basin 

pen, endeavour^ 

pend', hang (intr.^ 

penih' , paint-t3rush 

pens', think 

pent', to repent 

pentr, paint 

pep', to chirp 

per, by means of, with 

perc, perch (fish) 

perd', lose 

perdrih', partridge 

pere, perish 

perfeM, to perfect 

perfid', betray 

per g amen, parchment 

perl', pearl 

permes, permit 

peron', front-steps, stoop 



itr.) (J 



persih', peach 

pes', weigh (tr.) 

pest', plague 

pet', request, beg 

petoV, be roguish, play 

the wanton 
petrol', paraffin oil 
petroseV, parsley 
pez, weigh (intr.) 
pi, pious 
pied', foot (leg) 
pig, magpie 
pih', prick, sting 
pilh', ball (for playing) 
/nV, pine-tree 
pine, pinch 
pingT , pin 
pint', pointed 
pip, pipe (tobacco) 
pipr, pepper 
pir, pear 
pirit', gravel 
pist', to pound, crush 
piz, pea 

;?Zac', public square 
plac', please 
plad', plate 
plafon', ceiling 
pland', sole (of the foot) 
planJc', floor 
plant', plant (vb.) 
;??af , flat, plain 
plaud, clap 
p?e/, most 
plekt', weave, plait 



62 



ESPEEANTO AT A GLANCE 



plen, full 
plend', complain 
plet', tray 
plezur, pleasure 
pU, more 

plor', mourn, weep 
plu, further, longer 
plug', plough 
plum', pen 
plumb', lead (metal) 
pluv', rain 

po, apiece, at rate of 
pohaV, cup, goblet 
polic, police 
poligon, buckwheat 
/»— polur , polish , / 






pom, apple 

ponard', dagger 

pont', bridge 

popV, poplar-tree 

popoV, people 

por, for, for benefit of 

pord', door 

porh', hog, pig 

port', wear, carry 

posed', possess 

postj after, behind 

posten', garrison, station 

postuV, require, demand 

pos, pocket 

post', post, mail 

potenc', mighty 

pov, be able, can, could 



pra{avo), great (grand- 
father) 

prav , right (adj.) 

pre dp, chiefly 

preciz, precise 

predih', preach 

prefer , prefer 

preg, pray 

prem', press 

premi', prize (subst.) 

pren, take 

pres', print (vb.) 

presJcau, almost 

pret', ready 

preter, beyond (prep.) 

prez, price 

prezent', to present 

;7n, (Concerning, about 

princ, prince 

princip, principle 

printemp, springtime 

privat', private 

pro, owing to, for the sake 
of 

procent', interest . 

proces, lawsuit j y^ 

produM', V^^^^^^A^^TT^^^ 

profund', deep / J*'' 4^ ^ 

prolcrast', to delay /Xt^^« 

prohsim', near 

promen', to walk, stroll 

promes, promise 

propon, propose 

propr'y (one's) own 

prosper f succeed, thrive 



ESPERANTO 

prov', try^ wQX^ 

proviz, provide 

prujn, hoar (frost) 

prun, plum 

prunt' , to lend 
/ pruv, to prove 
i/lO pugn, fist 
^5- ;?2z^r, flea 

/ pulm\ lung 
.d5C«/(, ^ii/i;'^ gunpowder 

pulvor, powder 

pump', to pump 

pun , to punish 

punM', point 

punt', lace 

^w/?', doll 

pi/?'', pure 

/m^', pus, matter 

pifs', push 

put', well (subst.) 

pw^r', to rot 



rah', rob 

rabat', rebate, discount 
rob en, rabbi 
robot', to plane 
ra<i', wheel 
m^f , beam, ray 
radih', root 
rafan, horseradish 
rafin, refine 

m;^', to ride (on horse- 
back) 



AT A GLANCE 



63 



rajt', right, authority 

rakont', relate 

ramp', crawl 

ran , frog 

ratic', rancid 

rand', edge, margin 

rang', rank, grade 

rap', long radish 

rapid' , quick, rapid 

raport' , report 

rast', to rake 

rat', rat 

rauh', hoarse 

raup, caterpillar 

rav , ravish, delight 

raz, shave 

re, d. again, back 

redaJcci', editorial office 

reg', rule, govern ^- y - 

re^ar, regale f\xAa^,^Uf^^^ 

regn. State, realm <7 (7 

reguV, rule 

re,^', king 

rehompenc , reward 

reA;^', straight 

reV, rail 

rem', to row 

rembur, to stuff (chair) 

rempar , bulwark 

ren, kidney 

renTcont' , meet 

renvers', upset ..^a 

respond', reply* CZ/A^ tA>^^^^^_ _ 

resf , remain 

restoraci', restaurant 



64 



ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 



ret' J net 

rev' , day-dream 

rezuUat', result 

rih', currant 

riheV, to rebel 

ricev, obtain, get, receive 

ric', rich 

rid! , laugh 

rifug, take refuge 

rifuz, to refuse 

rigard', look at 

rigV, bolt 

rikoW, reap 

rilat', relate to, concern 

rim, rhyme 

rimarh', to notice 

rimed', means 

rimen, strap 

ring', ring (subst.) 

np', rib 

ripet', repeat 

ripoz, repose, rest 

riproc', reproach 

river , river 

riz', rice 

rod', roadstead 

romp', break 

rond', round, circle 

ronTc', to snore 

ros, dew 

rosf , roast 

rostr, trunk (of anim.) 

rof , company (military) 

roz', rose 

n^&', rubbish 



ruhand', ribbon 
rub en, ruby 
rug, red 
rifArf , eructate 
ri^r, roll (tr.) 
ru^t', rust (tr.) 
ruz, trick, ruse 



sdbaf, Saturday 

sahl', sand 

sa^', arrow 

m^', wise 

sak', sack 

sar, salt 

salat', salad 

salajr , salary 

salik', willow 

salm' , salmon 

salt', leap, jump 

salut', salute, greet 

sam', same 

san', health 

sang, blood 

sankt', holy 

sa/, soap 

sarZ;', to weed 

sat', satiated 

sauc , sauce 

sav , save 

sa', know (mentally) 

scienc, science 

sciur, squirrel 

se, if 

seh'j grease, fat 



ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 



65 



sed, but 

seg\ saw 

seg, seat, chair 

seh', dry 

seJcaV, rye 

sekc, dissect 

selcs', sex 

seJcv, follow 

sel\ saddle 

sem', sow 

semajn, week 

sen, without 

senCf sense 

send', send 

sewf , feel, perceive 

sep, seven 

Septemhr'y September 

sere, search 

seri', series 

serioz, serious 

serur', lock (subst.) 

serv, serve 

565, six 

sezon', season 

si, him-, her-, it-, one- 
self, themselves (re- 
flexive) 

sxbV, to hiss 

sid', sit 

sieg, besiege 

sigeV, seal (vb.) 

sign , sign, token 

5i^ni/', signify 

silab', syllable, silab'i to 
spell 



silent', to be silent 
si?i^', flint 
silh' , silk 
stmt', monkey 
simiV, like, similar 
simpV, simple 
singuW, hiccup 
sinjor'y Sir, Mr. 
sit el' , bucket 
situaci', situation 
skal', scale 

skapoV, shoulder-blade 
skarah', beetle 
shatoV, small box 
skerm'f to fence (sword) 
5^t2!', to sketch 
sklav', slave 
skrib', write 
5^:^', shake 
skulpf, sculpture 
skvam, scale (fish) 
smerald', emerald 
so&r', sober 
societ', society 
soif, thirst 
so/r, threshold 
sol' , only, alone 
soldat', soldier 
sol en, solemn 
solv', loosen, solve 
somer, summer 
son, sound (subst.) 
song, dream 
sonor, give out a sound 
(as a bell) 



66 



ESPEEANTO AT A GLANCE 



sopir, long for 
sorb', absorb 
sore, witchcraft 
sovag, wild, savage 
sort', fate, lot 
spac , space 
spec', kind, species 
spegul', mirror 
spert', experience 
spez', el'spez disburse, en'- 
spez receive (money) 
spic, spice 
spile', ear (of corn) 
spin, spine 
spinac', spinach 
spir, breathe 
spirit', spirit, mind 
spit', in defiance (of) 
spong, sponge 
sprit', wit 
spron', spur 
sput', expectorate 
stab', staff (milit.) 
stabV, trestle, frame-work 
staci', station ^A-AiW^^ 
staV , stall, sty AfZ»^ 
stamp , stamp, mark 
start', tin 
standard', flag 
stang', pole 
star, stand 
stat', state, condition 
steb', stitch 
stet, star 
sterTc', manure 



stern', stretch out, -ita, 

prostrate 
stertor, (death) rattle 
stomalc', stomach 
strab', squint 
Strang , strange, peculiar 
straf, street 
strec, stretch 
streTc, streak, line 
stri', stripe, wide streak 
strig', owl 
strut', ostrich 
stup', tow (subst.) 
sturn, starling 
sub, under, beneath 
subif, sudden 
sue, suck 
sud', south 
sufer, suffer 
sufic, sufficient 
sufoTc', suffocate (tr.) 
suh', sap, juice 
sukcen', amber 
sukces' , succeed 
suker, sugar 
sulfur , sulphur 
sulk', wrinkle 
sun, sun 
sup', soup 
super, over, above 
supoz, suppose 
supr, upper (adj.) 
sur, upon, on 
surd', deaf 
surtut'y overcoat 



ESPEEANTO AT A GLANCE 



67 



svat\ arrange matri- 
mony 
sven, to swoon 
sving, brandish, wave 



saf, sheep 

sajn', seem 

sdk', chess 

sancel', shake (tr.y 

sang, change (tr.) 

sarg, load (a gun) 

sarg', load, burden 

sat', to prize, like 

swum', foam, spray 

seV, shell, peel, rind 

selh', braces, suspenders 

sere, joke 

si, she (her) 

slid', shield 

Sim, mould 

sind', shingle 

sink', ham 

sip, ship 

sir, tear, rend 

sirm', shelter 

slim', mud 

slos, lock, fasten 

smac', hearty kiss 

smir, smear, anoint 

snur, string 

sov, push forward 

soveV, shovel \nrT 

spar, be sparing 



spin, spin 

sprue , sprinkle 

sranTc', cupboard 

sraub', screw 

staV, steel 

stat'. State 

5^t/?', log of wood 

steV, steal 

l/of, stuff, tissue 

Hon, stone 

s/op', stop up 

strump', stocking 

stup, step (ladder, stair- 

. way) 

5w', shoe 

suld', owe 

sw?ir', shoulder . f 

suf, shoot out (corn, &c.) /^<ncx Sc^ 

sveV, swell ^ 

51; tf ^ sweat 



tahah', tobacco 
tahel', list 
^a&r, table 
tdbuV, plank, board 
tag' , day 
tajlor, tailor 
/a^s', estimate 
/a/i', waist 
talp, mole (animal) 
tamhur', drum 
tamen, however 
tapet', tapestry 



68 



ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 






tapis , carpet 

tas', cup (tea) 

taug' , be fit for 

tavol', layer 

te, tea 

ted\ tedious 

teg\ cover ( furniture, &c. ) 

iegment' , roof 

teks, weave 

ieler'y plate 

temp', time 

tempi', temple (anat.) 

ten, hold, grasp 

tend' , tent 

tent' , tempt 

ter, earth 

tern, sneeze 

terur, terror 

testud', tortoise 

tetr, grouse 

tia, such a 

tial, therefore 

tiam, then 

tie, there 

tiel, thus, so 

tikV, tickle 

till , lime-tree 

tim', fear 

^tne', moth 
.^^ h'nf, clink of glasses 
'" tio, that (thing) 

tiom, so much 

^tV, draw, pull 

titoV, title 

^m^ that 



toV, linen 

^o/er', tolerate 

tomh', tomb, grave 

;^on^', clip, shear 

tondr, thunder 

tord', wind, twist 

torf', peat 

<or7i', turn (lathe) 

tornistr , knapsack 

tort', tart 

^ra, through 

trah', beam (of wood) 

traduk', translate ^ 'y. 

/raf , attain one's object, w*' < 

trajt', feature /xw^^'i/C-^. 

trakt', transact "^iz^t^f^jj^ 

tranc, cut ^ 

trankviV, quiet 

^raws, across 

^re^ very 

trem', tremble 

tremp, to dip 

^ren', drag, trail 

trezor , treasure 

^H, three 

trink' , drink 

tritik', wheat 

tro, too (much) 

tromp, deceive 

trotuar, sidewalk 

trov, find ^ 

tru, hole , ^ / H 

trud', force upon (/MnMdJL^ ^* 

trunk' , trunk, stem ^ . 

tuh', tube, pipe jj^ hXj^'^ 



ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 



69 



tuher', bulb 
tuf, tuft 
tuj, immediately 
tu¥y cloth 
tur\ tower 
turd', thrush 
turment', torment 
turn', turn (v. a.) 
tu^', cough 
tus, touch 
tuf, whole, quite 



U 

u, e. imperative 

uf, d. containing 

uV, d. remarkable for 

um', indef. suffix 

umbilik', navel 

ung, nail (finger) 

unu, one 

urV, town 

urs, bear (animal) 

urtih', nettle 

u^', e. of conditional 

uter', womb 

util', useful 

uz', use 



vag , roam 
vaks', wax 
i;ar, valley 



valor', be worth 

-yaw', vain, needless 

vang', cheek 

i;ani', vain, futile 

vapor, steam 

far&', to recruit 

varioV, smallpox 

varm', warm 

mrf , to nurse (child) 

vast', wide, vast 

vaz', vase 

i;e;V, vein 

vek', wake, arouse 

t;er, sail (subst.) 

velk', fade 

velur, velvet 

I'e/i', come 

vend', sell 

vendred', Friday 

venen, poison 

t'en^', vengeance 

venh', conquer 

vent', wind 

ventoV, to air 

ventr , belly 

-yer', true 

i;er^', green 

fer^', rod, -i whip, 

switch 
i;erA;', work (literary) 
verm', worm 

-yers', verse ^ , , / O 
i;er5', pour Ju^j^UA>d^. "^^ 
veruk', wart 
t;e5jp', wasp 



"Za^Ua- 



^0 



ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 



vesper, evening 
vespert\ bat 
vest\ to clothe 
vest', waistcoat 
vet', bet, wager 
veter', weather 
vetur, go (by vehicle) 
vezik', bladder 
vi, you 

viand', meat, flesh 
vie, row, rank, turn 
vid', see 
vidv', widower 
vigl', alert 
vilag', village 
vin, wine 
vinagr, vinegar 
vintr, winter 
viol', violet 
violon', violin 
vip, whip 
vir', man, male 
virg', virginal 
virt', virtue 
vis, wipe 



vitr, glass (substance) 

viv', live 

vizag, face 

i;t2;if , visit, call on 

t;oc', voice 

voj', way, road 

vojag, voyage 

vok' , call 

i;or, wish, will 

volont', willingly 

volv , wrap around, roll 

i^om , vomit 
vort', word 
i;osf , tail 
vuaV, veil 
i^wZ;?', fox 
vultur, vulture 
vund', wound 



zon, girdle 

zorg', care for 

2t^m', to buzz /JiuAASS 



• SHOET YOCABULAEY 

ENGLISH — ESPERANTO 

The words contained in this vocabulary are 
sufficient for most ordinary purposes. Although 
they seem few, it must be remembered that from 
these many other words may be easily formed by 
means of suffixes and grammatical endings. For 
instance, although "beautiful" is found in the 
vocabulary, both "ugly" and "beauty" are want- 
ing. However, any one can form these words: 
malbela, ugly; heleco, beauty. Other examples 
are: mal-san-ul-o (an invalid) from san' 
(healthy) ; antau-vid-i (to foresee) ; and mal- 
help'i (to hinder) from helpi (to help). Fur- 
thermore, it has not been considered necessary to 
include such international words as "locomotive," 
"telephone," etc. These are the same in Esperanto 
as in English; but of course they must be spelled 
phonetically: loJcomotivo, telefono, etc. 

Only words with the sign * are invariable. 
across, *trans 



about, *pri, *cirkaii 
above, *super 
accompany, akompani 
according to, *lau 
account, kalkulo 
accurate, akurata 
accustom, kutimigi 
acid, acido 
acquire, akiri 



act, agi 

actual, efektiva 

add, aldoni 

address (a letter), adresi 

adept, adepto 

adieu, *adiaii 

administer, administri 

admire, admiri 

adore, adori 

advertise, anonci 



71 



12 



ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 



affair, afero 
after, *post 
again, re 
against, *kontrau 
age, ago 

agreeable, agrabla 
agree, konsenti 
ah! *ha! 
aim, cell 

air (subst.), aero 
air (vb.), aerumi 
album, albumo 
all, *cio, *ciuj 
allow, permesi 
almost, *preskau 
alms, almozo 
alone, sola 
alphabet, alfabeto 
already, *jam 
also, *ankau 
although, *kvankam 
always, *ciam 
among, *inter 
amu^e, amuzi 
anchor, ankro 
ancient, antikva 
and, *kaj 
angel, angelo 
anger, kolero 
angle, angulo 
annoy, enuigi 
answer, respond! 
ant, formiko 
anxiety, maltrankvilo 
any, *ia, *m 



anyhow, *iel 

any one, *iu 

any one's, *ies 

anything, *io 

anytime, *iam 

anywhere, *ie 

appear, aperi 

apple, pomo 

apricot, abrikoto 

argue, disputi 

argument, argumento 

arm, brako 

around, *cirkau 

arouse, veki 

arrange, arangi 

art, arto 

as, *kiel 

ash, cindro 

ask, demand! 

ass, azeno 

assist, help! 

at, *en, *ce, *apud 

at least, *almenau 

attack, atak! 

attain, a ting! 

attempt, prov! 

attentive, atenta 

attest, atesti 

author, aiitoro 

authority i raj to, autor!- 

tato 
average, meznombro 
avoid, evit! 
await, atend! 
awake, vek! 



ESPEEANTO AT A GLANCE 



IS 



away. 



'for 



axis, akso 



B 



"bachelor, fraiilo 

hack (subst.), dorso 

hack (adv.), re- 

hag, sako 

taggage, pakajo 

lyake, baki 

halance, balanci 

hank, banko 

haptise, bapti 

har, bari 

hare, nuda 

hark (of dog), bojo 

hark (of tree), selo 

harley, hordeo 

harrel, barelo 

hasket, korbo 

hath, banc 

hattle, batalo 

he, esti 

heah, beko 

heam (of sun), radio 

heam (of wood), trabo 

hean, fabo 

hear (subst), urso 

hear (vb.), porti, toleri 

hear (to produce), pro- 

dukti 
heard, barbo 
heast, besto 



heat, bati 

heautiful, bela 

he come, farigi 

&e<i, lito 

&ee^ abelo 

heech, fago 

&eer^ biero 

before, *antau 

&e^^^ peti 

begin, komenci 

behind, *post 

behold, rigardi 

believe, kredi 

&eZ?i/^ ventro 

belong, aparteni 

bench, benko 

bend (v. a.), fleksi 

bend (v. n.), klini 

beneath, *sub 

&err?/, bero 

beside, *preter, *ekster 

bet, veti 

hetroth, fiancigi 

between, *inter 

bicycle, biciklo 

bind, ligi 

bind (books), bindi 

bird, birdo 

biscuit, biskvito 

bite, mordi 

black, nigra 

blame, mallaiidi • /^ 

bleat, bleki^ ^^ a/»u^»>^^^f:J:^. 

&/e5s^ beni 

& /{w^Z ( ad j . ) , blinda 



14 



ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 



bloody sango 

blow (vb.), blovi 

blue, blua 

body, korpo 

boil (vb.), boli 

bone, osto 

bonnet, capelo 

book, libro 

book-keeping, librotenado 

boot, boto 

bore (vb.), bori 

borrow, prunte preni 

both, *ainbau 

bottle, botelo 

bottom, fundo 

boundary, limo 

bouquet, bukedo 

bourse, borso 

box (subst.), kesto, ska- 

tolo 
box (vb.), bati, pugni 
boy, knabo 
brain, cerbo 
branch, branco 
bread, pano 
break, rompi 
breast, brusto 
breathe, spiri 
brick, briko 
bridge, ponto 
bright, brila 
broad, larga 
brother, frato 
brown, bnina 
brushy brosi 



bucket, sitelo 
buffet, bufedo 
&m?<^, konstrui 
&2^Z&, bulbo 
&i^ZZ, virbovo 
bullet, kuglo 
bureau, oficejo 
&2/r7i (v. n.), bruli 
&i^rfi (v. a.), bruligi 
6w^^ *sed 
butter, butero 
butterfly, papilio 
button, butono 
buy, aceti 
by, *per, *apud 



cabbage, brasiko 
cabin, kajuto 
cage, kago 
cake, kuko 
calculate, kalkuli 
call, voki 
camel, kamelo 
can (subst), kruco 
can (vb.), povi 
candle, kandelo 
candy, bombono 
cane, kano 
capable, kapabla 
car (railroad), vagono 
carafe, karafo 
card, karto 
care, zorgi 



ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 



15 



caress, karesi 
carpenter, carpento 
carpet, tapiso 
carriage, kaleso 
carrot, karoto 
case, skatolo 
cash, kaso 
cast (metals), fandi 
cast (throw), Jeti 
castle, kastelo 
cat, kato 
catch, kapti 
cause, kaiizi 
cave, kavo 
cavern, kaverno 
cease, cesi, halti 
ceiling, plafono 
cellar, kelo 
cement, cemento 
certain, certa 
chagrin, cagreno 
_A- chain, ceno 
^ '• chamber, cambro 

f change, sangi 
chapter, capitro 
charm, carmi 
chase, casi 
chatter, babili 
cheat, trompi 
cheeh, vango 
cheese, fromago 
chemise, cemizo 
chemistry, hemic 
cheque, ceko 
cherry, cerizo 



chess, sakoj 
chew, maci 
chief, cefo, estro 
c/tt76?^ infano 
chin, mentono 
chocolate, cokolado 
choose, elekti 
cigar, cigaro 
cigarette, cigaredo 
cinder, cindro 
circumstance, c i r k o n- 

stanco 
claim, postuli 
clamp (bracket), krampo 
clay, argilo 
clean, pura 
clear, klara 
clerk, komizo 
clever, lerta 
clock, horlogo 
cloth (a), tuko 
cloth (goods), drapo 
clothe, vesti 
cloud, nubo 
club, klubo 
coaZ^ karbo 
coal-oil, petrolo 
coast, bordo 
coffee, kafo 
coffin, cerko 
collar, kolumo 
collect, kolekti 
colour, koloro 
column, kolono 
comh, kombi 



76 



ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 



come, veni 
comma, komo 
command, ordoni 
commerce, komerco 
commission, komisio 
committee, komitato 
common, komuna, ordi- 

nara 
communicate, komuniki 
companion, kolego 
compare, kompari 
compassion, kompato 
complain, plendi 
conceal, kasi 
concerning, *pri 
conclude, konkludi 
condition, kondico 
conduct, konduto 
conduct (vb.), konduki 
confess, konfesi 
confide, konfidi 
confuse, konfuzi 
congratulate, gratuli 
conquer, venki, subreg- 

nigi 
conscience, konscienco 
conscious, konscia 
consent, konsenti 
console, konsoli 
constant, konstanta 
construct, konstrui 
content, kontenta 
contents (subst.), enhavo 
continue, daiiri 
contract, kontrakti 



convenient, oportuna 
convince, konvinki 
coolc, kniri 
copper, knpro 
copy, kopio 
corh, korko 
corn, greno 
corner, angulo 
correct, korekti 
correspond, korespondi 
cost, kosti 
cotton, kotono 
cough, tusi 
count, kalkuli 
counter, kontoro 
country, lando 
cousin, kuzo 
cover, kovri 
covetous, avara 
crafty, ruza 
cravat, kravato 
crawl, rampi 
cream, kremo 
create, krei 
crime, krimo 
cross (subst.), kmco 
crowd, amaso 
crown, kroni 
cruel, kruela 
crumple, cifi 
cry, krii 

cry (of beasts), bleki 
cuff, manumo 
cup, taso 
cupboard, sranko 



ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 



11 



curtain, kurteno 
curved, kurba 
cushion, kuseno 
custom, kutimo 
cut, tranci 



damage, difekto 
dance, danci 
danger, dangero 
day, tago 
deaf, surda 
dear, kara 
deceive, trompi 
decide, decidi 
deck, ferdeko 
dedicate, dedici 
deep, profunda 
deer, cervo 
defend, defend! 
define, difini 
deformed, kripla 
demand, postuli 
denounce, denunci 
dense, densa 
department, fako 
depict, pentri, figuri 
desert, dezerto 
desert (verb), forlasi 
deserve, merit! 
design, desegni 
desire, dez!r! 
destroy, detrui 



detail, detalo 
devil, d!ablo 
dew, roso 

diameter, d!ametro 
diamond, d!amanto 
die, mort! 
dig, fos! 

diligent, d!l!genta 
direct, d!rekt! 
disappoint, cagren! 
discharge (pour out), 

sut! 
discount, d ! s k o n t o, 

rabato 
dish, plado 
dispute, disputi 
distract, distr! 
distribution, d!sdono 
diverse, d! versa 
divide, d!v!d! 
divine (vb.)^ d!ven! 
do, far! 
dog, hundo 
doll, pupo 
dollar, dolaro 
door, pordo 
dot, punkto 
doubt, dub! 
dough, pasto 
dove, kolombo 
draw (out), t!ri 
draw (along), tr en! 
draw (pictures), pentri 
drawers (chest of), ko- 

modo 



18 



ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 



dream, songi 
drink, trinki 
drop, guto 
drown, droni 
drug, drogo 
drum, tamburo 
dry, seka 
duck, anaso 
dumb, muta 
iZi^^^, polvo 
duty, devo 



eac^^ *cia, *ciu 
eagle, agio 
6ar^ orelo 
earZi/, frua 
earth, tero 
605^^ oriento 
Easter, pasko 
eas?/^ facila 
ea^^ mangi 
ecstasy, ravo 
ecZ^e, rando 
editor, redaktoro 
educate, eduki 
e^ec^, efiki 
egg, ovo 
ei(7/i^^ *ok 
elastic, elasta 
elbow, kubuto 
elect, elekti 
elephant, elefanto 
embarrass, geni 



embrace, cirkaiipreni 
eminent, eminenta 
enceinte, graveda 
end, fini 
endeavour, peni 
endure, toleri, suferi 
engage, rizervi, promesi 
engineer, ingeniero 
enough, sufica 
entice, logi 
envelope, koverto 
envy, envio 
epoch, epoko 
egi/aZ, egala 
error, eraro 
especially, precipe 
establish, fondi 
esteem, estimi 
eternal, eterna 
even (adj.), ebena 
even (adv.), *ec 
evening, vespero 
every, *cia 
every one, *cm 
everything, *cio 
everywhere, *cie 
examine, ekzameni 
example, ekzeihplo 
except, escepti 
exchange (bill of), kam- 

bio 
execute, ekzekuti 
exercise, ekzerco 
exhibition, ekspozicio 
exist, ekzisti 



ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 



V9 



expedite, ekspedi 
expel, peli 
expend, elspezi 
expert, sperta 
explode, eksplodi 
explore, esplori 
express, esprimi 
extinguish, estingi 
extreme, ekstrema 
eye, okulo 
eyelid, palpebro 

F 

fahle, fablo 

face, vizago 

fade, velki 

faint, sveni 

fair (subst.), foiro 

faithful, fidela 

falcon, falko 

fall (of year), autuno 

fall (vb.), fall 

false, falsa 

family, familio 

fan, ventumilo 

fancy, revo 

fashion, modo 

fast (adj.), rapida 

fast (vb.), fasti 

fat, grasa 

fate, sorto 

father, patro 

fault, kiilpo 

favour, favori 



fear, timi 
/efl^s^^ festi 
feel (v. a.), palpi 
/ee? (v. n.), senti 
felt, felto 
fever, febro 
^e/^^ kampo 
^^. figo 
^^/^^^ batali 
/iZfer^ filtri 
find, trovi 
finger, fingro 
finish, fini 
/?r^ abio 
^re^ fajro 
firm, firma 
^s/i^ fiso 
^s^^ pugno 
five, *kvin 
^a.^, standardo 
fiat, plata 
flatter, flati 
^a:c^ lino 
fleece, felo 
^owr^ faruno 
^ow^ flui 
flower, floro 
^w^^ laimge 
/^-wit?^ fluajo 
^i^^e^ fluto 
fly (vb.), flugi ^ 
/?!/ (subst.), nrnso 
foam, saiimo 
fog, nebulo 
fold, faldi 



80 



ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 



follow, sekvi 

foot, piedo 

for, *por, *pro, *car 

forehead, frunto 

foreign, fremda 

forge, forgi 

forget, forgesi 

forget-me-not, miozoto 

forgive, pardoni 

fork, forko 

forth, *for 

fortified, fortika 

fortunate, felica 

fountain, fonto 

four, *kvar 

fox, vulpo 

frame, kadro 

franc, franko 

free, libera 

fresh, fresa 

Friday, vendredo 

friend, amiko 

fright, teruro 

frog, rano 

from, *e\, *de 

front, fronto 

frost, frosto 

/rwi^^ f rukto 

frying pan, pato 

fulfil, plenumi 

/^ZZ^ plena 

fume (subst), haladzo 

funeral, funebro 

fur, pelto 

furious, freneza 



furniture, meblaro 
furrow, sulko 



gam, gajni 
gall, galo 
garden, gardeno 
garlic, ajlo 
^as^ gaso 
gather, kolekti 
gay, gaja 
gentle, gentila 
gentleman, sinjoro 
genus, gento 
^e^^ ricevi 
give, doni, donaci 
^Zass^ vitro 
glass (a), glaso 
^?o&e^ globo 
glory, gloro 
^/o2;e^ ganto 
glue, gluo 
^na^^ kulo 
^0^ iri 
goat, kapro 
(?o^, Dio 
gold, oro 
p'006^^ bona 
good-hye, *adiau 
goods, stofo 
goose, ansero 
grain, greno 
^raiw (a), grajno 
grandfather, avo , 



ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 



81 



grandson, nepo 
grape, vinbero 
grass, herbo 
grasshopper, akrido 
grease, sebo 
great, granda 
green, verda 
grey, griza 
grind, mueli 
groan, gemi 
grow, kreski 
guarantee, garantio 
guard, gardi 
guess, diveni 
guest, gasto 
gulf, golfo 
gum, gumo 
gunpowder, pulvo 

H 

/iai7^ hajlo 
/ifliV^ haro 
ham, sinko 
hammer, martelo 
hand, mano 
handicraft, metio 
handy, lerta 
/lan^^ pendi 
hangings, tapeto 
happen, okazi 
happy, felica 
harbour, haveno 
hardly, *apenaii, mal- 
facile 



Tiare^ leporo 
/lar^^ harpo 
harrow, erpi 
Tia^^ capelo 
/iai;e^ havi 
hay, fojno 
/^e^ li 
/tea 6^^ kapo 
health, sano 
/lear^ audi 
heart, koro 
/lea^ (v. a.), hejti 
heaven, cielo 
/leeZ, kalkano 
hell, infero 
helmet, kasko 
/ie?p^ helpi 
hemp, kanabo 
here, *tie ci 
hero, her 00 
herring, haringo 
hew, haki 

/iiiZe (subst), hauto 
hide (vb.), kasi 
/it^/i^ alta 
hinge, carniro 
hire, dungi 
/li^^ frapi 
hoarse, raiika 
hog, porko 
hold, teni 
TioZe^ truo 
/io??/^ sankta 
home, hejmo 
honest, honesta 



82 



ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 



honey, mielo 

honour, honori 

hoof, hufo 

hoolc, hoko 

hope, esperi 

horse, cevalo 

horse-radish, rafano 

host, mastro 

hotel, hotelo 

hour, horo 

house, domo 

how, *kiel 

however, *tainen, *do 

how much, many, *kioin 

humble, humila 

humour, humoro 

hump, gibo 

hundred, *cent 

hunt, casi 

hurt, vundi, dolori 

hushand, edzo 

I 

I, mi 

ice, glacio 
if, *se 

illustration, ilustrajo 
imitate, imiti 
immediately, *tuj 
important, grava 
inch, colo 
incite, inciti 
incline, klini 
increase, kreski 



indeed, *ja 
industrious, diligent a 
industry, industrio 
infant, infano 
infect, infekti 
influence, influi 
inherit, heredi 
injure, vundi, difekti 
inlc, inko 
inner, interna 
insect, insekto 
insert, enmeti 
instead, *anstataii 
instruct, instrui 
insult, insulti 
insure, asekuri 
intend, intenci 
interest, interesi 
intestine, intesto 
invite, inviti 
iron, fero 
iron (vb.), gladi 
island, insulo 
it, gi 
itch, juko 
ivy, hedero 



jaclcet, jako 
jaw, faiiko 
jealous, jaluza 
jewel, juvelo 
join, jungi, aligi 
joint, artiko 



ESPEEANTO AT A GLANCE 



83 



joJce, serci 

journal, jurnalo 

journey, veturo 

joy, gojo 

judge, jugi 

jug, kruco 

juice, suko 

just (adj.), justa 

just (adv.), *jus, guste 



Jceep, konservi 

keg, barelo 

kernel, kerno 

kerosene, petrolo 

kettle, kaldrono 

key, slosilo 

kidney, reno 

hind (subst), speco 

hind (adj.), aminda, afa- 

bla 
king, rego 

kingdom, regno, reglando 
kiss, kisi 
knee, genuo 
know, scii, koni 



labour, labori 
lace, pasamento 
lake, lago 
lame, lama 
land, lando 



language, lingvo 

lantern, lanterno 

lard, lardo 

large, granda 

lark, alaudo 

last (adj.), lasta 

last (vb.), daiiri 

laugh, ridi 

law, lego 

lead (subst.), plumbo 

lead (vb.), konduki, es- 

tradi 
leaf, folio 
lean (vb.), apogi 
leap, salti 
learn, lerni 
leather, ledo 
/eai;e (subst.), permeso 
leave (vb.), lasi 
legend, legendo 
legume, legomo 
lemon, citrono 
lend, prunte doni 
lentil, lento 
lesson, leciono 
letter, letero 
letter (of alphabet), li- 

tero 
lick, leki 
lie (down), kusi 
lie (tell a), mensogi 
lift, levi 

light (subst.), lumo 
lightning, fulmo 
like (vb.), sati, ami 



84 



ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 



nice (adj.), simila je 

lily, lilio 

lime, kalko 

limit, limo 

line, linio 

linen, tolo 

lion, leono 

lip, lipo 

listen, aiiskiilti 

live, vivi, logi 

liver, hepato 

lizard, lacerto 

lo! *jen 

load (a gun), sargi 

locJc (subst), seruro 

loch (vb.), slosi 

locomotive, lokomotivo 

lodge, logi 

long (adj.), longa 

long (vb.), sopiri 

lose, perdi 

lot (cast), loto 

lottery, loterio 

loud, laiita 

lounge, kanapo 

love, ami 

lucifer, alumeto 

lung, pulmo 

M 

machine, masino 
mad, kolera, freneza 
magpie, pigo 
mail, posto 



maize, maizo 
majesty, majesto 
make, fari 
man, homo, viro 
manner, maniero 
manufactory, fabriko 
many, multa 
maple, acero 
marble, marmoro 
margin, margeno 
marsh, marco 
mason, masonisto 
mass, amaso 
mast, masto 
master, mastro 
mat, mato 
match, alumeto 
mattress, matraco 
meal, faruno, mangado 
means, rimedo 
measure, mezuri 
meat, viando 
medicine, kuracilo 
meet, renkonti 
melon, melono 
member, membro 
memory, memoro 
mercury, hidrargo 
mesh, maso 
middle, mezo 
migrate, migri 
mile, mejlo 
milk (subst.), lakto 
milk (vb.), melki 
mill, mueli 



ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 



85 



mind, animo, cerbo 
mine, mia (poss. pron.) 
mirror, spegulo 
misery, mizero 
mix, miksi 
mixture, miksajo 
model, modeli 
moderate, modera 
modest, modesta 
molasses, siropo 
mole, talpo 
Monday, lundo 
money, mono 
monJc, monaho 
monhey, simio 
month, monato 
moon, luno 
more, *pli 
morning, mateno 
moss, musko 
most, *plej 
mountain, monto 
mourn, plori 
mouse, muso 
mouth, buso 
move, movi 
mow, falci 
much, multe 
mucilage, gumo 
mud, koto 
mule, mulo 
murmur, murmuri 
must (vb.), devi 
mustard, mustardo 
mutter, murnmregi 



N 

nail, najlo 

nail (finger), ungo 

naTced, nuda 

name, nomi 

nape, nuko 

nation, nacio 

nature, naturo 

near, proksima 

near to (prep.), *apud 

necessary, neeesa 

neclc, kolo 

need (vb.), bezoni 

neigh, bleki 

neighbour, najbaro 

neither, *nek 

nephew, nevo 

wes^^ nesto 

we^, reto 

nettle, urtiko 

never, *neniam 

new, nova 

night, nokto 

nightingale, najtingalo 

nine, *nau 

710^ *ne 

no&Ze^ nobla 

nohleman, nobelo 

nohody, *neniu 

nohow, *neniel 

noise, bruo 

none, *neniom 

no one's, *nenies 

nor, *nek 



ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 



north, nordo 
nose, nazo 
not, *ne 
nothing, *iienio 
nourish, nutri 
now, *nun 
nowhere, *nenie 
number, nombro, numero 
nut, nukso 



oak, kverko 

oar, remilo 

oats, aveno 

obey, obei 

object, objekto 

object, kontraustari 

obstinate, obstina 

obstruct, bari 

occasion, okazo 

occupy, okupi 

odour, odoro 

of, *de, *da 

offend, ofendi 

offer (sacrifice), oferi 

ojfer (present), prezenti 

officiate, agi 

often, ofte 

oh I *ho ! 

oil, oleo 

on, *sur 

one, *unii 

onion, bulbo 

onZi/ (adj.), sola 



only (adv.), *nur 
opinion, opinio 
opportune, gustatempe 
opposite, *kontrau 
or, *au 

orange, orango 
order (subst.), ordo 
order (vb.), ordoni, 

raendi 
ordinary, ordinara 
organ, /)rgeno 
oriental, orienta 
ornament, ornamo 
orphan, orfo 
other, alia 
ought, devi 
out, *for 
outside, *ekster 
oval, ovalo 
oven, forno 
o?;er, * super 
overcoat, surtuto, super- 

vesto 
overthrow, renversi 
owe, suldi 
owl, strigo 
own (vb.), posedi 
own (adj.), propra 
ox, bovo 
oyster, ostro 



paci^^ paki 
page, pago 



ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 



87 



pail J sitelo 

pain, doloro 

paint, pentri 

pale, pala 

palace, palaco 

palate, palato 

pants, pantalono 

paper, papero 

paradise, paradizo 

pardon, pardoni 

parrot, papago 

part, parto 

particularly, precipe 

partridge, perdriko 

pass, pasi 

passion, pasio 

pastor, pastro 

pasture, pasto 

patch, fliki 

patience, pacienco 

pause, halti 

pavement, pavimo 

pay, pagi 

pea, pizo 

peace, paco 

peacoch, pavo 

pear, piro 

pearl, perlo 

pen, plumo 

pencil, krajono 

penny, penco 

people, popolo 

pepper, pipro 

perceive, rimarki, eksenti 

perfect, perfekta 



perish, perei 

permit, permesi 

persecute, persekuti 

person, persono 

perspire, sviti 

petticoat, jupo 

pheasant, fazano 

piano, fortepiano 

pickle, pekli 

piece, peco 

pillar, kolono 

pin, pinglo 

pinch, pinci 

pine, pino 

pineapple, ananaso 

pious, pia 

pipe, pipo, tubo 

pitch, peco 

pity (vb.), kompati 

pity [it is a], domago 

place, loko 

plague, pesto 

pki^^ plekti 

/>/ane (vb.), raboti 

plant (vb.), planti 

pkn^ (subst), kreskajo 

plate, telero 

^?ai/^ ludi 

please, placi 

pleasure, plezuro 

plough (vb.), plugi 

plum, pruno 

pocket, poso ^U^rf •" 

poin^, punkto A4»M44^|^»^*^^ 

poison, veneno ^Z/jflZO^ 



88 



ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 



pole, stango 

police, police 

polish, poluri 

polish (for shoes), ciro 

poplar, poplo 

poppy, papavo 

porcelain, porcelano 

possess, posedi 

post (mail), posto 

pot, poto 

pour, versi 

powder (gun), pulvo 

powder (dust), pulvoro 

praise, laudi 

pray, pregi 

preach, prediki 

precise, preciza 

prepare, prepari 

present (subst.), donaco 

present (vb.), prezenti 

preserve, konservi 

press, premi 

pretty, beleta 

price, kosto 

prick, piki 

priest, pastro 

prince, prince 

print, presi 

private, privata 

prize, prezo 

produce, produkti 

promise, promesi 

proper, propra 

property, posedajo 

propose, proponi 



prosper, prosperi 
protect, gardi, defendi 
proud, fiera 
prove, pruvi 
proverb, proverbo 
prudent, prudenta 
pull, tiri 
pump, pumpilo 
punish, puni 
pure, pura 
purple, purpura 
pus, puso 
pu^h, pusi 
put, meti 
puzzle, enigmo 



quality, eco 
quantity, kvanto 
quick, rapida 
quiet, trankvila 
quit, forlasi 



rabbit, kuniklo 
race, gento 
rag, cifono 
rail, relo 
railroad, fervojo 
rain, pluvi 
raJce, rasti 
rapid, rapida 



ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 



89 



raspberry, frambo 

rat, rato 

rate (at the — of), *po 

raven, korvo 

ravish, ravi 

ray (of sun), radio 

reach, atingi 

read, legi 

ready, preta 

real, efektiva 

reap, rikolti 

receive, ricevi 

recognise, rekoni 

rectangle, rektangulo 

red, ruga 

regard, rigardi 

regiment, regimento 

register (a letter), reko- 

mendi 
reign, regi 
rejoice, goji 
relate to, rilati 
relation, parenco 
remain, resti 
remark, rimarki 
remedy, rimedo 
rent, rento 
repeat, ripeti 
repose, ripozi 
represent, figuri 
reproach, riproci 
request, peti 
require, postuli 
resound, sonori, resoni 
res^ [the], cetero 



revenge, vengi 

reward, rekompenci 

rhyme, rimo 

n&, ripo 

ribbon, rubando 

rice, rizo 

nc/t^ rica 

n'cZe^ rajdi 

right (in the), prava 

right (authority), rajto 

right (hand), dekstra 

righteous, justa 

ring, ringo 

ripe, matura 

river, river o 

road, vojo, strato 

roast, rosti 

ro&^ rabi 

roll, ruli 

roo/^ tegmento 

rooJc, frugilego 

room, cambro 

rooster, koko 

root, radiko 

rope, snuro 

rose, rozo 

rotten, putra 

round, ronda 

row; (rank), vico 

row (vb.), remi 

rub, froti 

rubber-shoe, galoso 

rule, regulo 

rum, rumo 

run, kuri 



90 



ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 



sack, sako 

sacrifice (v.), oferi 

sad, malgoja 

saddle, selo 

sail, velo 

salad, salato 

salmon, salmo 

salt, salo 

salute, saluti 

same, sama 

sand, sablo 

Saturday, sabato 

sauce, saiico 

save, savi 

5a m;^ segi 

sa?/, diri 

scarcely^ *apenau, mal- 

volonte 
science, scienco 



r ^ scissors, tondilo 
fXyJ^y^^*^ scratch, grati 



U>. 



screw, sraubo 
sculpture, skulpti 
sea, maro 
seagull, mevo 
seaZ (animal), foko 
seaZ (vb.), sigeli 
search, serci 
season, sezono 
sea^^ segi 
seductive, deloga 
see, vidi 
seem, sajni 



seZ/^ si; mem 

sell, vendi 

sen^?^ sendi 

sense^ senco 

separate, aparta 

serpent, serpento 

serve, servi 

set (type), komposti 

seven, *sep 

severe, severa 

sew, kudri 

shadow, ombro 

shaft (of carriage, etc.), 

timono 
shake, skui, premi 
shame, honto 
sharp, akra 
shave, razi 
s/ie^ *si 
5/1 ea/, garbo 
shear, tondi 
sheep, safo 
5/ie//^ selo, konko 
shield, sildo 
shilling, silingo 
shine, brili 
s/ii;?^ sipo 
s/iir/^ cemizo 
s/ioe^ suo 
shoot, pafi 
shore, bordo 
short-sighted, miopa 
shoulder, sultro 
shovel, soveli 
5/101^^ montri 



ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 



91 



shut, fermi 
side, flanko 
sign, signo 
signify, signifi 
silent, silenta 
silk, silko 
silver, argento 
similar, simila 
simple, simpla 
sin, peki 
sing, kanti 
sir, sinjoro 
sit, sidi 

situation, situacio 
six, *ses 
sTcate, gliti 
skilful, lerta 
skin, haiito 
sleep, dormi 
sleeve, maniko 
slide, gliti 
slippery, glata 
smear, smiri 
smell (subst.), odoro 
smell (vb.), flari 
smoke, fumi 
smooth, ebena^ glata 
snail, limako 
sneeze, terni 
snow, nego 
so, *tiel 
soap, sapo 
so&er^ sobra 
society, societo 
sofa, kanapo, sofo 



soft, mola 

sole (of foot), plando 

solve, solvi 

5ome^ *ia, kelka, *iom 

somehow, *iel 

5ome owe^ *iu 

some one's, *ies 

something, *io 

sometime, *iam 

somewhat, *iom, *iel 

somewhere, *ie 

50 much, *tiom 

50?!^ filo 

soon^ *baldaii 

sorcery, sorco 

sorrow, malgojo, cagreno 

50^?^ animo 

sound, soni 

502^^^ supo 

south, sudo 

sow^ semi 

sparrow, pasero 

speak, paroli 

special, speciala 

s^eZ/^ silabi 

s/?ice^ spico 

spider, araneo 

5pm^ spini 

spirit, spirito 

spit, kraci 

[in — of], *mal- 
graii 
■, fendi 
sponge, sponge 
spoon, kulero 



92 



ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 



spot, makulo 

spring (time) , p r i n - 

tempo 
spring (wire), risorto 
sprinkle, spruci 
spur, sprono 
square (public), placo 
squirrel, sciuro 
stable, cevalejo 
stain, makulo 
stairs, stuparo 
stammer, balbuti 
stamp (metal, etc.), 

marko 
stamp (postage), post- 

marko 
stand, stari 
star, stelo 

state (condition), stato 
state (country), stato 
station, stacio 
steal, steli 
steam, Vaporo 
steel, stalo 
step, stupo 
stewpan, kaserolo 
stick (cane), bastono 
still (adj.), kvieta 
still (adv.), *ankorau 
sting, piki 
stocking, strumpo 
stomach, stomako 
stone, stono 
stop, cesi, halti 
stop up, stopi 



store, magazeno, vendejo 

stork, cikonio 

story, rakonto 

story (of house), etago 

stove, forno 

straight, rekta 

strange, stranga 

strap, rimeno 

straw, pajlo 

strawberry, frago 

streak, streko 

street, strato 

stretch (v. a.), streci 

stride, paso 

strike (hit), frapi 

string, kordo (music)] 

string, snuro 

strive, peni 

strong, forta 

stuff, stofo 

success, sukceso 

such, *tia 

suck, suci 

sudden, subita 

suffer, suferi 

suffocate, sufoki 

sugar, sukero 

sulphur, sulfuro 

summer, somero 

sun, suno 

Sunday, dimanco 

supplement, aldono 

support, subapogi, helpi 

suppose, supozi 

suspect, suspekti 



ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 



93 



suspenders, selko 
swallow (bird), hirundo 
swallow (vb.), gluti 
swan, cigno 
swear, Juri 
sweep, balai 
swell, sveli 
swim, nagi 
swing, svingi 
sword, glavo 
syllable, silabo 
sympathise, kompati 



table, tablo 

tablet, tabuleto 

tail, vosto 

tailor, tajloro 

taJce, preni 

tale, fabelo 

tall, alt a 

tallow, sebo 

^ap (water, etc.), krano 

tapestry, tapeto 

tassel, glano 

taste, gusti 

^fl^^ takso 

/ea^ teo J 

teach, instrui 

tear, larmo 

tear (vb.), siri 

tedious, teda, malagra- 

bla 
telegraph, telegrafi 



tell, rakonti, diri 

temple, templo 

temple (of head), tem- 

pio 
ten, *dek 
territory, teritorio 
than, *ol 
thanh, danki 
that (pron.), tiu; tio 
that (conj.), *ke 
that (rel.), kiu, kio 
thaw, degeli 
the, *la, *1' 
the more — the, *iu pli — 

des 
theatre, teatro 
then, *tiam 
there, *tie 
therefore, *tial 
they, ill ^ 

^/licA;, dika ttSt^ttJf^l-^^i^^i 

think, pensi ^^iL tm Kr 

thirst, soifo 

^/li's^ *tiu ci 

though, *kvankam 

thousand, *mil 

thread, fadeno 

threaten, minaci 

^/iree^ *tri 

threshold, sojlo 

thrift, sparo 

throat, gorgo 

through, *tra; *per 

throw, jeti 

thunder, tondro 



fiSs? 



94 



ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 



Thursday, jaMo 

thus, *tiel 

ticlcet, bileto 

tickle, tikli 

tie, ligi 

time, tempo, fojo 

tin, stano 

tinplate, lado 

tired, laca 

^0, *al 

toad, bufo 

to-day, *hodiau 

together, *kiine 

toilet, tualeto 

/om&^ tombo 

tomorrow, *niorgau 

tongue, lango 

too, *tro 

/oo^/i^ dento 

torment, turmenti 

tortoise, testudo 

totter, sanceligi 

touch, tusi 

towel, f isilo ' 

tower, turo 

;^ow7i^ iirbo 

^rac^e (subst.), komerco 

trade (vb.), komerci 

transact, trakti 

translate, traduki 

treaty, kontrakto 

tree, arbo 

tremble, tremi 

triangle, triangulo 

trouble, zorgo, peno 



true, vera 

trumpet, trumpeto 

/rifw^ (of tree), trunko 

tru^t, konfidi 

try, provi 

tub, kuvo 

/i^&e, tubo 

Tuesday, mardo 

tulip, tulipo 

tune (subst), melodio, 

aerio 
tune (vb.), agordi 
turkey, meleagro 
turn, tumi 
turn (wood), torni 
turnip, rapo 
twist (v. a.), tordi 
twist, (v. n.), volvi 
two, *du 
type, tipo 

U 

wZcer^ ulcero 
umbrella, ombrelo 
uncle, onklo 
under, *sub 
understand, kompreni 
undertake, entrepreni 
until, *gis 
upper, supra 
upset, renversi 
-Mri^e^ inciti 
W5e^ uzi 
useful, utila 
utilise, utiligi 



^j^f^jufxjiJiii 



ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 



95 



V 


wander, vagi 


▼ 


?^an^, bezoni 


vain (useless), vana 


war, milito 


valise, valizo 


warm, varma 


valley, valo 


wa5/t^ lavi 


various, diversa 


wasp, vespo 


vase, vazo 


water, akvo 


vast, vasta 


wai;e^ ondo 


vein, vejno 


waa;^ vakso 


velvet, veluro 


wa^/^ vojo 


verse, verso 


we, *m 


vertical, vertikala 


weary, laca, enua 


very, *tre 


weather, vetero 


vest, vesto 


weave, teksi 


vignette, vinjeto 


wedge, kojno 


village, vilago 


Wednesday, merkredo 


vinegar, vinagro 


wee^^ semajno 


violet, violo 


weep, plori 


violet (adj.), violkolora 


w;ei^/i (v. a.), pesi 


violin, violono 


wei^/t (v. n.), pezi 


virtue, virto 


well (subst), puto 


visit, viziti 


well (adv.), bone 


voice, voco 


west, okcidento 


volcano, vulkano 


whale, baleno 


volume, volumo 


what, *kia, *kio 


voyage, vojago 


wheel, rado 




when, *kiam 


w 


where, *kie 


whether, *cu 


wages, salajro 


?(;/tt7e, *dum 


waist, talio 


i^;/iip, vipo 


wait, atendi 


whistle, fajfi 


waZ^, promeni, marsi 


white, blanka 


wall, muro 


who, *kiu 


walnut, juglando 


w/toZe^ tuta 



96 



ESPEEANTO AT A GLANCE 



whose, *kies 

why, *kial 

wich, meco 

wide, larga, vasta 

widower, vidvo 

wild, sovaga 

will, voli 

willow, saliko 

wind (vb.), vindi, bobe- 

numi, streci 
wind (subst), vento 
window, fenestro 
wine, vino 
wing, flugilo 
winter, vintro 
wipe, visi 
wise, saga 
wish, deziri 
wit, sprite 
with, *kun 
within, interne 
without (wanting), *sen 
without (outside), ek- 

stere 
wolf, lupo 
wonder, miri 
wood (substance), ligno 
wool, lano 



word, vorto 
work, laboro 
worJc (of an author), 

verko 
world, mondo 
worm, vermo 
wound, vundi 
write, skribi 



yawn, oscedi 
year, jaro 
?/ea5^^ fermentilo 
yellow, flava 
?/es, *jes 

yesterday, *hieraii 
yet, *ankoraii 
yoke, jugo 
you, vi 
young, juna 

Z 

zenith, zenito 
zigzag, zigzago 
2;mc^ zinko 
2;one, zone 



ESPERANTO 
TAUGHT BY MAIL 

THE 

INTERNATIONAL ESPERANTO 

INSTITUTE 

(Branches in different countries and cities) 

CLASSES IN ESPERANTO BY THE 
MODERN METHODS 

CENTRAL ORGANIZATION FOR 
EXAMINATIONS AND DIPLOMAS 

NEW YORK BRANCH 

SCHOOL OF ESPERANTO 

126 Cleveland Street Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Inaugurated the 1st of October, 1908 

MEMBERSHIP FEE: 
$5.00 for the full course of fifty lessons (including text-book) 



AN INITIAL FINE 0^^ 2^«ENTS 

W.LL BE ASSESSED FOB FA.LUBE^T^ ^^^^^ 
THIS BOOK ON fH^^^JI^^s oN THE FOURTH 

^v^ir^Tif"- o" "^ --^^" °^^ 

OVERDUE. 




iSW^^^ 



Gaylamount 

Pamphlet 

Binder 

Gaylord Bros.. Inc. 

Stockton, Calif. 

T. M. Reg. U.S. Pat. Off. 



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